Acute tonsillitis: symptoms and treatment
Probably, there are few such people who have never in their lives had to deal with such a disease as angina, or acute tonsillitis. The history of the disease has more than one millennium. Mention of this disease is found in the writings of Hippocrates, Herodotus. Thanks to the Roman healer Celsu, tonsillitis was called angere, which means "squeeze", "squeeze".
This disease is characterized by an acute infectious nature, with local manifestations in the form of inflammation of the tonsils and adjacent lymph nodes. Someone, having been sick once, forgets about the problem forever, in others the disease becomes chronic and recurs annually.
Acute tonsillitis has become such a common disease that even doctors underestimate its seriousness, although the consequences can be extremely negative. After suffering this disease, persistent immunity does not occur, therefore tonsillitis is a danger, arising again if the treatment has not been completed.As a result of inadequate or improper treatment, self-treatment, complications are possible in the form of paratonsillar abscess, tonsillogenic sepsis or tonsillogenous mediastinitis, pharyngeal abscess, cervical lymphadenitis and acute otitis media. As acute tonsillitis occurs and is transmitted, we will describe the symptoms and treatment of the disease in this article.
Causes of disease
A lot of bacteria and viruses constantly get into the human body, with which a strong immune system successfully copes. If the immune system is weakened, the probability of the disease increases.
Most often, acute tonsillitis causes Streptococcus, rarely Staphylococcus aureus and other types of bacteria. Additional provoking factors are violations of personal hygiene, overcooling of the body, poor nutrition, deficiency of vitamins and nutrients, curved nasal septum, making it difficult to breathe through the nose (may be congenital or acquired), injury to the tonsils.
The cause of the disease may be the presence of chronic foci of infection, such as carious teeth, periodontal disease, sinusitis, sinusitis, frontitis, adenoiditis.
How is the disease transmitted
Tonsillitis can be transmitted from person to person by airborne droplets. Sometimes fecal-oral route of infection is possible, for example, when consuming products infected with staphylococcus aureus. It is easier and faster to get viral sore throat.
The ingress of bacteria occurs during direct and rather close contact with a patient having a streptococcal form of infection in the acute or subclinical stage. At the same time, a person spreads many pathogenic bacteria around. Transmission of these microorganisms can take place only over short distances, which means that the probability of catching an infection in public places is very low. Viral infections can spread over fairly long distances.
Often the disease is transmitted through intra-family contact (using common dishes, various household items and hygiene, kisses). Acute tonsillitis in adults and in children can be caused by local hypothermia with weakened immunity.
Sometimes a person may be a carrier of streptococcal bacteria, but it does not have any symptoms of the disease.This is due to the fact that immunity and infection that has entered the body are equal in strength. This form of the disease is called subclinical.
But if too cold drinks and foods are consumed, local immunity may decrease, as a result of which the inactive form of Streptococcus can begin to multiply, which leads to the development of acute tonsillitis.
The first symptoms of the disease are a sharp rise in temperature and a general deterioration of health, pain when swallowing, aching joints, and sometimes pain in the region of the heart. Acute tonsillitis in children is accompanied by increased drowsiness and loss of appetite. Unlike a viral infection, reducing the temperature in this case does not bring relief.
An important sign is the presence of purulent plaque on the tonsils in the diagnosis of a disease such as acute tonsillitis. A photo showing the picture of the disease is given in the article. The raid can be point and solid.
Forms of tonsillitis
Many do not even suspect the existence of more than five types of acute tonsillitis. And they differ in symptoms, course of the disease and methods of treatment. Tonsillitis is of several kinds.
This form is most common in both adults and children, transmitted by airborne droplets. In addition, the symptoms and course of catarrhal angina are considered the easiest, unlike other forms of the disease.
Symptoms include tickling and a feeling of dryness in the throat, which quickly turns into pain, difficulty in swallowing, the tonsils turn red, and the temperature rises to 38-39 ° C (sometimes the disease proceeds without fever), the patient feels weakened, his headaches the pains.
In children, this type of disease begins with fever and headaches. The smallest kids refuse to eat, become restless and whiny. Older children can only have a sore throat, and later a cough appears. In adults, the disease is easier. The temperature rises infrequently and not above 38 ° C. And yet, this disease is not as harmless as it seems, complications can be very unpleasant.
A dangerous complication of the disease is laryngitis (false croup). It happens more often in preschoolers. This applies not only to this form of tonsillitis, but also to the rest.If your child has a sore throat, you should give him an antihistamine or consult a doctor.
Like the previous form of the disease, transmitted by airborne droplets. You can become infected directly from the patient or through objects with which he came into contact.
In children, the symptoms of the disease are more pronounced. Toddlers become moody, lethargic, refuse to eat, they have disturbed sleep. Suspected disease can be due to severe pain in the throat, fever up to 40 ° C, marked edema of the tonsils. In the mouths of the lacunae there is a yellow-white bloom, which can be easily removed with a medical spatula. In addition, the disease is accompanied by headaches, chills, nausea, it happens even vomiting.
The disease develops rapidly, turning a vigorous person into a lethargic and sick for a couple of hours.
A very dangerous complication in children is the occurrence of acute otitis media, conjunctivitis, seizures and false croup.
This is another kind of purulent tonsillitis. Signs of follicular angina are the same as lacunar. It differs only in the presence of suppuration on the tonsils, which looks like light yellow bubbles on the mucous membrane.In this case, a strong fever and general intoxication lasts no less than a day, and the temperature gets difficult. Sore throat is very strong, often gives in the ear.
Follicular tonsillitis can have complications such as meningitis, infectious shock, sepsis, arthritis, rheumatism, etc.
The transmission path of this form of the disease is oral-fecal or through the discharge of the nasopharynx. The main causative agent is Coxsackie virus. Symptoms of the disease are the patient's condition, as with the flu, severe pain in the abdomen and throat, increased salivation, swelling of the lymph nodes. Tonsils and palate are covered with serous hyperemic bubbles.
Complications of this type of disease are very dangerous. This encephalitis, meningitis and myocarditis.
The course and symptoms of this type of tonsillitis are similar to lacunar and follicular, often their complication. Of the features it can be noted that the spread of yellowish plaque is not limited to the tonsil mucosa and can be observed throughout the oral cavity.
Improper treatment can lead to inflammation and damage to the brain.
Most adults suffer from this form of tonsillitis.Cause streptococcus disease, penetrating into the tissue spaces. May be a complication of catarrhal or follicular tonsillitis. The main signs of the disease are fever, severe unilateral pain in the throat, hoarse voice, or even loss of it, it smells unpleasantly from the mouth. The palate and tonsils turn red and swollen, a purulent focus is formed, which needs to be opened.
Without proper treatment, the disease can end with a cervical abscess, purulent meningitis, brain abscess, general blood infection, etc.
Most often, he is exposed to very emaciated people, with weak immunity and lack of vitamins of groups B and C.
When the disease keeps low-grade fever. There is drooling, severe pain in the throat, regional lymph nodes are inflamed, there is an unpleasant smell from the mouth, on the tonsils and in the mouth you can see a gray-yellow plaque, possible necrosis of the tonsils and even nearby tissues.
Complications in this form of the disease usually do not arise, it is not difficult, but it still requires treatment.
This species is most difficult to diagnose because of its huge diversity. The difficulty is that the disease proceeds without symptoms, patients practically do not feel pain or discomfort in the throat. Diagnosis of the disease is complicated by the fact that concomitant lesions of the internal organs (heart, liver, biliary tract, kidneys, thyroid gland) are detected, which leads to an incorrect diagnosis and treatment, which only gives relief for a short time, aggravating the course of the disease.
Do not forget that acute tonsillitis is a disease that can result in serious complications with the wrong treatment or its absence. Therefore, from the first days of the disease it is necessary to observe bed rest.
If the diagnosis is acute tonsillitis, treatment will mostly be local. Treat the throat with antiseptic agents. Such a procedure as rinsing with antiseptic solutions is very important, which helps to get rid of purulent deposits on the tonsils and flush out the contents of the lacunae. There is an opinion that in case of purulent tonsillitis it is undesirable to remove the plaque, since the spread of infection is possible.
Be sure to drink plenty and drink fresh vegetables and fruits. Eating spicy, cold or too hot foods should be avoided. Relieve condition helps warming compresses.
Depending on the form of the course of the disease and the condition of the patient, medications are prescribed, most often these are sulfa drugs: "Biseptol", "Sulfadimethoxin", "Sulfalen", etc. The duration of treatment is 7-10 days.
Antibiotics for acute tonsillitis are used for pronounced intoxication. Since the disease is caused by streptococci that are sensitive to penicillin, in the absence of allergy, it is most often prescribed Amotsiklav or Amoxicillin. The second drug is available in various forms, so it is convenient to use in the treatment of children.
When the susceptibility to allergies or insensitivity of the microbe to penicillin, it is advisable to use the macrolide group medicines: "Klacida", "Lendacin", "Cefalexin", "Sumamed", "Erythromycin" and others.
As an adjuvant, antipyretics, antihistamines are prescribed. If necessary, you can assign physiotherapeutic methods of treatment.
Throughout the disease, it is necessary to systematically repeat urine and blood tests to avoid possible complications.
Sometimes conservative methods do not work with such a diagnosis. How to treat acute tonsillitis in this case? You may need surgery, which consists in removing the tonsils. This method of treatment is resorted to only in extreme cases, since the lymphoid tissue of the tonsils is an immune organ.
Suspected acute tonsillitis in children is a reason for immediate medical attention. Finding signs of angina during a visual examination, the doctor is obliged to take a smear for diphtheria, since the symptoms of these diseases are very similar. Perhaps, hospitalization will be offered, in case of refusal, the pediatrician is obliged to come to your house for three days and monitor the condition of the child diagnosed with acute tonsillitis.
Treatment in children is not much different from the treatment of adults. Most likely, you will need to take antibiotics, otherwise the disease may develop into a chronic one. There is also the risk of serious complications. On the first day of taking antibiotics, the condition may deteriorate - this means that the body has begun to fight against the infection.
Be sure to gargle. Children who do not know how to do this can be given warm tea with lemon. Twice a day, remove plaque from the tonsils with a bandage wrapped around a finger.
Offer your child to drink more often; food should preferably be given in liquid form. Spicy, sour dishes are not recommended.
Traditional medicine offers many recipes for dealing with diseases such as acute tonsillitis. The treatment consists in the use of compresses, rinses, inhalations. Here are some recipes:
- It will help relieve the state of a compress from fat cottage cheese (250 g) and chopped small onions (250 g). On the neck, you must first apply the cream. Part of the mixture is applied to the fabric and applied to the throat, which must be wrapped with a warm scarf. Compress incubated for half an hour, then put the second portion of the mixture. You need to repeat the procedure for several days.
- Good results are obtained by using honey water for rinsing. For its preparation take 1 tsp. honey and bred it in a glass of water. Such a tool well removes the symptoms of the disease.
- For the preparation of another honey-based product, an enameled pan is taken and six tablespoons of honey and a spoonful of raspberry jam are brought to the boil. Drink hot before bed.A single dose is enough.
- Acute catarrhal sore throat is treated with lemon juice and honey (1: 1), which must be dripped onto the affected tonsils several times a day. Repeat no more than three times a day.
With a disease like a sore throat (acute tonsillitis), it is necessary to gargle more often, repeating the procedure 5-10 times a day. Well act such means:
- Radish juice (50 g) with honey (1 tsp.). After the procedure, the tool can be swallowed.
- Infusion of chamomile flowers and sage leaves (1: 1). The mixture (2 tbsp. L.) Is poured with boiling water and insisted in a thermos for 2 hours. Infusion is used for rinsing or taken inside.
- Infusion of calamus roots. 1 tbsp. l raw materials are poured with cold water (half a liter) and left overnight. In the morning, the infusion is boiled for 10 minutes and filtered.
- The roots and leaves of burdock. To prepare the drug, pour one part of the burdock with ten parts of boiling water. The remedy should be infused four hours. Then it is boiled and filtered.
At the first signs of chronic, acute tonsillitis, you can try to stop this way: half a lemon should be chewed slowly with the peel, then do not eat or drink for an hour.Two hours later, eat the second part of the lemon.
In the treatment of purulent tonsillitis propolis infusion helps very well. To prepare the drug, dilute with propolis tincture (1: 1) with warm water. The solution is collected in the mouth and kept in the glands as long as possible (do not rinse). Repeat 3-4 times every two hours. After five days of this treatment, the disease should recede.
If you feel pain in the throat, at the initial stage such a composition for rinsing will help: 1 stack. hot water, salt and soda (1 tsp), iodine (a few drops). If you often gargle with this solution throat, you can get rid of the pain in one day.
Good help in the treatment of tonsillitis Kalanchoe. Enough to chew a few leaves to feel relief.
You can make a cake of dry mustard, honey and flour. All the ingredients are taken in equal quantities and make a cake, which must be attached to the throat, previously covered with cellophane, and wrap a warm scarf overnight.
A good tool is a decoction of pine buds, which has anti-inflammatory and expectorant effects. Use it in the form of inhalation. To do this, take 3-4 Art.l raw materials, pour water and put in a water bath for 15 minutes. Inhalation should not be done for more than 5 days.
As a preventive measure for a disease such as acute tonsillitis, it is recommended that a complete rehabilitation of the oral cavity and nasopharynx, the treatment of carious teeth, inflammatory diseases of the gums, adenoids be recommended. It is necessary to take natural immunomodulators, such as propolis, garlic, echinacea, ginseng, wash the lacunae of the tonsils and rinse the throat with warm saline.