Automatic PPP: specifications, device, photos, reviews
Throughout the history of mankind, weapons have been improved. New species appeared, which served as a springboard for the following. From stones on sticks to nuclear weapons. In the XX century. There was a great demand for submachine guns. The Second World War showed their reliability and necessity for the use of the army. As many people know, before the Second World War in the Soviet Union, PPSh was used, which could no longer correspond to that time. Therefore, the task was to create a new submachine gun. He combined all the good qualities of his predecessor and was better than his automatic PPS, the technical characteristics of which are described below.
Before proceeding to the description of the weapon, it is necessary to consider its creation. The history of the PPS automatic machine begins in 1942, when the predecessor of the PPSh no longer corresponded to the new framework. However, the government believed that the new machine should have the same features as the outdated model.Therefore, the requirements put forward by him, obliged to create a submachine gun, which would be more technologically advanced and simple in design and operation, but had the same advantages as PCA. Designer Soudaev, in whose honor the legendary weapon was named, put forward his project, which turned out to be the best.
To the new submachine gun were put forward the wishes that the automatic PPS fully matched. Requirements can be summarized as follows:
- New weapons should be cheaper than PCA. At the same time have the best performance and ease of production.
- It should have been easier. The overall PCA was inconvenient for scouts, assault forces, tank crews and communications men who could not use them for various reasons. Interestingly, PPSH was lighter than the German MP-40 by 400 g, but even that was not the case.
- The store was supposed to be a simple box. And the dimensions are small. The rate of shooting, oddly enough, better than a slow one. This increases the accuracy of fire. All this would make the new submachine gun much more convenient than the PCA.
How good was the weapon of victory automatic PPP? TsAMO (Central Archive of the Ministry of Defense) has information that proves that the new weapons had the most stringent requirements. D.N.Bolitin gives the following indicators. Thus, the weight of the new submachine gun was supposed to be from 2.5 to 3 kg. The rate of fire, which could have a model, was limited to an interval of 450-500 rounds per minute. It was a value that allows to increase the accuracy of shots. In addition to all the above, there were also stringent requirements for technology. The most important thing is the maximum simplification of production, which was carried out through automatic processing and simplification of the structure as a whole. The new submachine gun had to be made of 2-3 mm steel, which was machined mechanically, which would increase the speed.
The restrictions also concerned the equipment itself: only press equipment limited in power was allowed to be used. The use of complex stamps that could inhibit production was not allowed. And one sample was given only 3-3.5 hours of work on the machine. All this was directly aimed at maximizing the number of submachine guns for a limited time required in the context of hostilities.
Start of production
The new automatic PPP passed comparative tests in July 1942.Already in 1943, mass production began. It was necessary to test and refine as quickly as possible, since the army needed a new submachine gun to replace the old PPSh, which was much inferior to similar models of the enemy. The first sample from which the mass production began was PPS-42. It was introduced in parts of the Leningrad Front, where the machine gun showed itself perfectly and was liked by the soldiers. However, it was necessary to make some changes to the design, so in 1943 PPS-43 was created, which had a caliber of 7.62 mm. Sudayev’s advanced submachine gun was even more functional and revealing. Thus, the new machine has become the leading among all models of this type of small arms.
A model that did not meet all the requirements and had flaws needed to be fixed. In the mass production was launched a new automatic PPP. The device had the best performance. Therefore, it is rather difficult to find PPS-42, they were produced little. In private collections and in museums, they are quite rare. But what is the difference between the models? In the replaced device, the point of connection of the shoulder rest with the rods is lower, the upper shoulder of the stop is much longer than the lower one.This is one of the main external differences, it can be noticed by anyone, even someone unfamiliar with the features of automatons of that time. However, in photographs, the part that is a distinctive feature is most often hidden by the shoulder of the shooter, therefore it is not so well known.
Also, PPS-42 and 43 have another interesting difference: when the butt is folded, the shoulder rest in an earlier model is located in front of the sight block, while in the other it covers it. How can this be explained? In PPS-43, the length of the barrel and butt is reduced, so the overall length was much smaller (from 907 to 820 mm). This also greatly reduced the weight of the model. In addition, there are some technological changes that have increased the fighting qualities of PPS-43. However, they cannot be seen with the naked eye.
During the fighting the country falls into a crisis. Not enough money to produce expensive models. Therefore, the new PPS automatic machine had a much more economical design, in which less metal elements were used than in the PCA. This has reduced the cost of weapons in general. In addition, the percentage of waste in the production of these two submachine guns is also very different in favor of PPP (48%). In the PPSh, the same indicator was equal to 60-70%.In the production process of the new machine, both stamping and welding were widely used, and the PPS-43 itself was made almost entirely of metal, excluding only the lining of the handle, which was made of wood, and later also plastic was used.
PPP, like most submachine guns, made a shot at the expense of the recoil energy of the free gate. This principle was also in the PPSh, and in other models of weapons of this type. As already mentioned, the government has set a goal to increase the accuracy of shooting. At that time it was possible only with a decrease in speed, which was used at the PPP, perhaps the simplest way and at the same time the most effective. There were two ways out (if you take a weapon with the principle of a free shutter): either to increase the mass of the shutter itself, or to use additional nodes. However, the device was already extremely massive, and the second version greatly complicated the design.
In the MP-40, the German analogue PPSH, a system of telescopic tubes is used, which reduce the rate of fire. However, the design is very complicated. In the PPSh-41, the rate of fire reaches 1,100 shots per minute,which greatly increases the spread. Therefore, by the way, the model could not be used in the army. The mass of the shutter was about 0.6 kg in PPP. The MP-40 machine gun had only 600 shots per minute, and the design did not have a fire interpreter, which PPSh-41 had. Therefore, it was not possible to achieve a simple design for this model.
There was a need for a more technological output with a decrease in firing speed. In the PPS-43 for this, the stroke length of the shutter increased, which was 142 mm, and in the PPSH - 83. This reduced the rate of fire to 700 shots per minute. It should be noted that the professional shooter is able to produce even single shots. This is achieved by briefly pulling the trigger, which, by the way, was also possible on the German MR-40. Reviews about the teaching staff in the ranks of the army were exceptionally good.
Many units, like their assignment, at PPS-43 and PPSh-41 are quite similar, which is explained by the installation to leave the combat figures. Consists of a receiver machine Sudayev PPP. The device includes a barrel, bolt and return mechanism. Also used in the design of the trigger box, which contains a trigger mechanism and a fuse. These two parts are connected by hinges.
To the back of the receiver is attached butt, which can be folded. And in front of the trigger is the neck of the store. Steel box has the shape of the letter "P". It is made from a single sheet of steel. Below it is open along its entire length. The front part of it forms the trunk shroud, which is intended to protect the arrow from burns. Thus, PPS-43 has greater security than its predecessor. A special device virtually eliminates the impact on a person of a device such as automatic PPP (photos can be seen below).
In the back of the receiver on the guide moves the bolt, which is affected by the reciprocating-combat spring. It is worn on the rod and is shifted to the left along the side groove. He, in turn, goes to the cup of the bolt, where the bottom of the sleeve is placed. The guide rod acts as a reflector, the sleeve after the shot bounces off of it and is thrown into the window, which is located on top of the receiver.
An interesting design has PPP (automatic). The mechanism of the descent, like most parts, is extremely simple.It consists only of the trigger and the lever, which are connected by an axis. With the latch trigger box combined mechanism. They are also adjacent to the fuse. The latch closes both boxes in the closed position. The safety device is created in the form of a plate, which is located on the right wall of the trigger box (from its inside).
This position allows you to simultaneously block the trigger, and lock the connecting axis, and lock the bolt. The latter is fixed in the position in which he was at the time of setting the submachine gun on the fuse. Here there are two positions: front and rear. In the first, the bolt is fixed by the end of the fuse plate, which rests on the back of the fuse handle. In the rear position, the bolt handle is secured by the middle part. Thus, a fuse is a device that is controlled by a plate. The very same machine becomes on him after moving the handle down and up.
The latch of the magazine, which is located in the front of the trigger guard, is covered with a brace welded to the neck. It does not accidentally press the latch, but at the same time is intended for convenience.The PPS-43 machine is very functional, its parts often perform several roles, this ensures simplicity of design, and, therefore, accelerates production. It is unlikely that it will be possible to create a PPP (automatic) with your own hands - this requires special conditions and equipment.
The machine shop includes 35 rounds of ammunition, as in the PPSh. However, the automatic Sudayev PPP has a different design of this device. So, he has no ridges (ribs) and some other parts that are on the PCA store. This, by the way, greatly reduces the weight of the entire machine and makes it more technological. Weight without a store (260 g without equipment) is about 3 kg. The total weight of PPS with cartridges is 3.62 kg. The length of the barrel - 0.25 m. The mass of the gate is about 0.5 kg. Each sample comes with 6 stores that are carried in bags. Their weight, together with the PPP machine, is 6.82 kg. This is a good indicator.
The real victory weapon - the PPS-43 machine gun - has become a legend. PPS and PPS machines are great weapons. They are credited with a great contribution in the liberation of Leningrad. However, until the end of World War II, the PPSH was produced in large quantities than PPP.Historians and experts call this submachine gun the best among all the weapons of this type of those times. PPS-43 includes all the technical innovations of the time and at the same time remains easy to use and manufacture.