Blood test for glucose: how to take?
Most often, the change in the degree of blood glucose remains unnoticeable for a person. It is possible to learn about the existing deviations only when the tests are completed. In this regard, experts strongly recommend blood and glucose testing at least once every six months to women and men over forty years old, and regardless of age and gender, to those who have a hereditary predisposition to such a disease as type 2 diabetes, or overweight.
Over five percent of the population in our country suffer from diabetes. That is why constant monitoring of the glucose content is required. How is a blood glucose test done and its results decrypted? Just about this we'll talk in the article.
Get to know glucose
Glucose is a monosaccharide, that is, a simple carbohydrate that plays a very important role in the body, since it is the main source of energy. All cells of the human body need glucose.This substance is necessary for vital activity in principle and ensuring the processes of metabolism to the same extent as fuel for transport.
The amount of glucose in the blood makes it possible to determine the state of human health, and therefore it is very important to maintain the necessary balance of this substance in the body. Sugar, familiar to humans and contained in food, through a hormone such as insulin, is split and then enters the blood. The amount of insulin produced by the pancreas is directly proportional to the sugar content of the food.
What is the reason for the blood glucose test?
However, the amount of insulin that can be produced is limited. That is why all the extra sugar is stored in the body. If you use sugar in excessive quantities, you can break such a complex system and increase the level of glucose contained in the blood.
In the same way, the balance may be disturbed due to abstaining from eating food or if the diet does not comply with the required rate. In this case, the level of glucose is reduced, and this is the reason for the decrease in the efficiency and activity of brain cells.
An imbalance is also possible in case of disorders in the functioning of the pancreas, which is engaged in the production of insulin. Dry mouth, excessive thirst, sweating, frequent urination, dizziness, weakness, rapid heartbeat, the smell of acetone from the mouth - these are the symptoms that show us that we need to passblood test for glucose. The norm in women will be presented below.
Varieties of blood glucose tests
Defects in the metabolism of carbohydrates represent a significant risk to human health. That is why people who are not indifferent to the state of their organism have questions. Is it possible to diagnose the disease at any of its stages? If so, how? How to take a blood glucose test? We will try to answer these questions.
- Laboratory methods.
They represent a range of blood tests that are carried out under laboratory conditions and provide an opportunity to establish an accurate clinical picture of the disease. Such complex studies allow to establish the presence or absence of the fact of a defect in carbohydrate metabolism, as well as to specify the existing pathological process.
- Blood chemistry.
Such a study is a universal diagnostic method used for general examination or for prevention. Due to biochemical analysis, it is possible to evaluate various indicators in the body, including also determining the level of glucose. The material taken for analysis is sent to the biochemical laboratory.
- Test glucose tolerant, conducted on an empty stomach with a load.
This research method helps to fix the level of glucose in the blood plasma. The patient must donate blood on an empty stomach. After that, for five minutes, he should drink a glass of water with glucose dissolved in it. Then the sample is made every half hour for two hours. Such a blood test for glucose tolerance makes it possible to detect diabetes mellitus and determine abnormalities in the body.
- Test glucose tolerant to C-peptide.
Such an analysis allows to quantify the functioning of beta cells that produce insulin, identifies a specific type of diabetes mellitus (may be insulin-dependent or insulin-independent).This method is a serious indicator during the monitoring of treatment of the first and second types of diabetes.
- Analysis of glycated hemoglobin.
A compound of hemoglobin and glucose is studied here. The glycohemoglobin level is the higher, the more sugar is contained in the blood. The analysis makes it possible to assess the degree of glycemia, that is, the glucose content in the blood, for one to three months that precede the study. In accordance with the WHO recommendations, it is necessary and optimal for monitoring the condition of those people who suffer from both types of diabetes. In addition, in the blood test for glucose, cholesterol is also detected.
- Analysis determining the level of fructosamine.
The combination of proteins and glucose is called fructosamine. It differs from glycated hemoglobin in that the level of fructosamine indicates the degree of transient (that is, temporary) or permanent increase in sugar level not in one to three months, but in one to three weeks preceding the study. Thanks to the test, it is possible to fully evaluate the effectiveness of the treatment of hyperglycemia, and, if necessary, adjust it.In addition, such an analysis is indicated for pregnant women to determine latent diabetes, as well as for patients with anemia.
- Research on lactate levels.
It is an indicator of the amount of lactic acid that is produced by the body during anaerobic glucose metabolism (that is, without the participation of oxygen in it). Such an analysis may be evidence of laccytosis (the so-called acidification of the blood due to the accumulation of lactate in it) of a particular type arising from the presence of a disease such as diabetes.
Blood test for glucose during pregnancy
Gestational diabetes mellitus, that is, a defect in glucose tolerance, may occur during pregnancy. Therefore, the expectant mother should donate blood for the so-called glucose tolerance test. The higher the glucose concentration in the blood, which is higher than normal, the greater the risk of macrosomia, that is, overweight and too high growth of the fetus.
Such a factor can cause premature birth and injury to the mother or baby during the birth process. That is why during pregnancy it is necessary to control blood sugar, which will be useful for both the mother and her unborn child.
Such a method has as its basis the same reactions that are investigated in laboratory analysis, but it takes much less time, and it can be done at home.
To do this, a drop of blood must be placed on the test strip, which is installed in the glucose oxidase biosensor of the meter, and the result will be obtained in a few minutes. It is considered to be an express method approximate, but it is necessary for people who suffer from diabetes, because such monitoring allows daily monitoring of sugar levels.
Terms of preparation for the analysis
It must be remembered that there are certain rules for preparing for a study so that the results are obtained with maximum certainty.
- Eight hours before the blood supply, it is forbidden to take any food, and in the form of drinking you can only use water without gas.
- The day before the procedure is not desirable to drink alcohol.
- Before the blood glucose test, you should, if possible, abandon the use of various drugs.
- On the eve you can not chew gum and it is best not to brush your teeth.
How to take a blood glucose test
Glucose testing is usually given early in the morning. Capillary and venous blood is suitable as a test material. To determine glucose tolerance, blood taken from a finger is taken.
Testing for glycated hemoglobin can be given at any time and is not necessarily an empty stomach, since external factors have no effect on the result of a study of this type. The type of analysis determines its duration.
The decryption of the blood test for glucose is done only by a specialist, but there are generally acceptable limits of the norm, and you can focus on them to get an idea of their results. The patient may try to understand them.
When analyzing blood for glucose in a child under two years of age, the normal range is from 2.78 to 4.4 millimoles per liter, from two to six years - 3.3-5, for schoolchildren - from 3.3 and not more than 5 , 5 millimoles per liter.
For adults, the rate of biochemical analysis of blood for glucose ranges from 3.89 to 5.83, in older people over sixty years of age, glucose should have a level of up to 6.38 millimoles per liter.
In women, during pregnancy, the normal glucose index ranges from 3.3 to 6.6 millimoles per liter.
The load test is characterized by its own normal limits, which can matter up to 7.8 millimoles per liter. If the degree of lactic acid content is determined, then the norm indicator will be values from 0.5 to 2.2 millimoles per liter.
Fructosamine in the blood of men is contained in an amount of from 118 to 282 micromoles per liter, in a woman - from 161 to 351.
Glycated hemoglobin has the same rate for both adults and children: not more than 5.7 percent.
If, as a result of biochemical analysis of blood for glucose, an increase in its level, that is, hyperglycemia, was determined, then this may indicate such pathologies as endocrine disorders, diabetes, kidney and liver diseases, and acute or chronic pancreatitis.
With a decrease in sugar, that is, hypoglycemia, it can be assumed that the patient has such diseases as hypothyroidism, pathologies of the liver and pancreas, poisoning with drugs, alcohol or arsenic.
The indicator in the test with a load of 7.8 to 11 millimoles per liter indicates a person's prediabetes condition.If the result is even higher than this limit, then we can talk about the presence of diabetes.
With an increased level of lactic acid, diabetes mellitus is diagnosed in fifty percent of cases. In addition, it may be an indicator of glycogenosis, cirrhosis, serious vascular diseases, etc. The low value indicates anemia.
With an increased level of fructosamine, diabetes mellitus, defects in glucose tolerance, diabetes during pregnancy, renal failure, etc. are assumed.