"Bran" is the term of the times of the Stolypin reform. Significance of cuts in the peasant economy of Russia
At the beginning of the twentieth century, large-scale peasant unrestin the Russian Empire forced the authorities to look for ways to solve the agrarian question in the country. Two ways of agrarian reform were objectively possible. The first way led to the preservation of the landed estates and the destruction of the peasant community. The second way led to the annulment of landed estates and the nationalization of land. In the process of introducing land reforms, the notion of "cut" arose. This word was rarely seen before in the speech, but at the beginning of the century, all the peasant farms of the empire knew its significance.
The All-Russian Congress of the United Nobility gavepush to implement the first way of land reform. Taking into account the inevitability of the destruction of the old peasant way of life, the government decided to completely destroy peasant allotment land ownership, while the land of large landowners remained untouched. Reforms were conducted under the leadership of Prime Minister P. Stolypin, and soon the name "Stolypin Reforms" appeared on hearing. On November 3, 1905, the royal manifesto was presented, according to which the redemption payment was canceled, and allotment land became the full property of the peasant.Thus, it became possible to formof land holdings. This word appears in the beginning of 1906 and is successfully used up to the revolution of 1917. This concept comes from "chopping", "chopping off" - so in the people's environment was called the division of land between peasant farms.
The meaning of the word "cut" implies a separate plot, allotted from communal land ownership to the personal use of the peasant.
Together with the division of communal lands, it was accepteddecision to evict poor peasant farms on the outskirts of the Russian Empire. Since the peasantry under tsarism did not have full rights and freedoms, the question arose about securing freedom of movement for representatives of this class. March 10, 1906 The situation of the Council of Ministers granted the peasants the freedom to choose their residence, freedom of movement, the cancellation of "restrictive rules" in passports and the equalization of the peasantry in its civil rights with other estates. Thus, the peasant could leave the community and obtain land in private ownership - a cut. This became possible even in those areas where fertile soils were scarce - so the question of resettlement on the outskirts of the empire was also decided.
Several households with a separate land ownershipformed a farm. As a rule, such small settlements arose in newly annexed areas of tsarist Russia, where communal land ownership was not practiced or widely spread. The farm and the cut were symbolic symbols of the Stolypin reform, which aimed to reorganize the peasantry into small farms according to the Prussian model.
Successful completion of the Stolypin reformprevented the October Revolution. With her arrival, many words lost their meaning, including "bran". This concept lost its importance after the publication of the Decree on Land, signed by V.I. Lenin.