City of Stalingrad: as it is now called, and what name wore before
City of Stalingrad: what is it called now, and what name did it wear before?This will be our conversation.Turning over the pages of history, one can understand that the city has a complex, heroic biography.Tsaritsyn, Stalingrad, Volgograd - all these are the names of the same city. Few Russian cities have changed names three times in their history.
We will begin the journey into history from the distant 16th century, when Tsaritsyn was built on the banks of the Volga, designed to become one of the trade and political centers that was needed here, as the river was in those times a means of transportation for ships in the winter and for ships in the winter . And this path had to be maintained and guarded against enemy attacks.
A wooden fortress built by settlers erected here in 1589 was burned by the royal troops. In place of wooden stone buildings appeared.The settlement wandered from place to place, then settling on the right bank of the Volga, then on the left. The Cossacks were there, the Adyghes, the Circassians, the Nogays were running up.
This lasted until Peter the Great came to the city and ordered to build the Tsaritsyn watch line, bestowing on the city his cap and cane, which are kept in the museum to this day. It happened in 1718.
Many more terrible events have fallen to the share of the city of Tsaritsyn: two devastating fires, Yemelyan Pugachev's raid, a settlement on the Volga shores of German colonists.
In the 19th century, Tsaritsyn reached an unprecedented heyday. The first school opened in the city, doctors began to receive patients, a mustard factory opened, potatoes were grown on the fields, and a railway line appeared. These events were only the forerunners of the rapid development of Tsaritsyn as a center of industry and culture.
In 1917, the power of the Bolsheviks was established in the city by peaceful means, and this served only as another impetus for its rapid flourishing.
In 1925, the Congress of the All-Russian Central Executive Committee decided to give the city the name of I. V. Stalin, who, according to eyewitnesses, was against it and did not even appear at the congress.
As a result of the congress since 1925, the city lost its historic name Tsaritsyn. Stalingrad is the name that marked a new milestone in its development.
New factories and plants are being built, the Stalingrad TPP is being launched, the Stalingrad Tractor Plant was commissioned, and the pedagogical and medical institutes are opening.Stalingrad (1925-1961) in spite of everything in the most difficult historical conditions became the largest industrial and cultural center of the Volga region.
The city developed and was upset until it struck trouble in our country. In 1941 the Great Patriotic War began.
Battle of Stalingrad
The Nazis moved around the country by leaps and bounds. Stalingrad was for their offensive an important strategic point.
The days from July 17, 1942 to February 2, 1943 - a terrible time for the city and for the whole country, called the Battle of Stalingrad. According to official figures, in those days more than a million Soviet people died. Among them were old men, women, children.
People died not only in battle - the city was subjected to air raids, as a result of which a huge number of civilians died. Although the civilian population of those people is difficult to call.Everyone who could hold tools in their hands, from small to large, went to the construction of protective structures in the defeated city. Despite the devastation, the factories continued to work, releasing new tanks and shells. Who could, became a machine tool.
The command sent new and new military units to the Stalingrad front. Relentless statistics show that, on average, the life of a fighter at the Stalingrad frontiers was 24 hours.
They fought for every street, every house. The Nazis bitterly joked, calling that war on the streets of Stalingrad "rat war."
This massacre went beyond the highest point near the city - Mamaev Kurgan. For centuries, the enemy tried to seize this important strategic object. From his hands the whole city and its districts were visible for many kilometers.
Particularly fierce battles were fought in the areas of artillery and tractor factories, which continued to produce military equipment all the time, which was immediately sent into battle.
February 2 - the day of the official victory of the Soviet army over the Nazis in the Battle of Stalingrad. This day was a turning point for the outcome of the entire war. In Germany, mourning was declared for the defeat at Stalingrad.
Terrible fights underwent the city of Stalingrad. What is now called a place that immortalized the memory of the defenders who were killed here, every resident of the city and all of Russia knows. On Mamayev Kurgan towers a majestic monument to the heroes who gave their lives in that battle.
In the postwar years, the city quickly began to recover, gaining past greatness and beauty. The destroyed buildings, plants, factories revived, new ones were built.
City of Stalingrad: what is the name of this hero city now? Why once again changed the name of the city, no doubt no one causes.
The decision to rename was made in 1961. The working countries did not want the name of the city to remind of a person with whose name the destruction of a huge number of innocent people was associated.
On the map of our vast country there have been changes. Replacing Stalingrad-Volgograd did not affect the rapid development of the city. Currently, it is a million-plus city, attracting many tourists, remembering its heroic history.
There are many places of memory here, and to this day, residents of the whole country remember about the city of Stalingrad.What is now called the panorama of military events? Of course, Stalingrad panorama. And how can you rename the battle? No It will always keep the name -Battle of Stalingrad.