Classification of social groups
A social group is an associationpeople on any significant social basis. Participants in such associations can engage in common activities, have a certain structure of relations, or be in the same conditions. Members of the group, one way or another, are aware of their involvement in this education.
Social groups are studied by sociology and social psychology.
Classification of social groups is very diverse. First of all, distinguish small, large and medium groups.
A large group consists of social strata, ethnic communities, age groups and so on.
As part of the study of the average, teams working at enterprises, residents of one city, district are considered.
Small groups can include a family, a companyfriends, etc. A distinctive feature of such is the presence of contacts and interpersonal or emotional relations of their participants with each other. Most of the research in the field of social psychology is devoted to small groups.
Classification of social groups can be based on various characteristics.
For example, primary and secondary smallgroup. Primary are characterized by the presence of direct contacts between participants. In the secondary, special means are used for communication, for example, of various kinds of messages. Members of the secondary group are more separated from each other.
There is also a classification of social groups,based on how clearly defined the status of each of the members of the association. On this basis, small groups are divided into formal and informal. The first type is characterized by a fixed system of roles. The form of leadership and subordination also has a strictly fixed character. Informal groups are formed spontaneously, sometimes they can arise within formal associations. If there is a common activity within the informal group, then a sufficiently clear structure can arise.
Another classification of social groups is based on whether a person participates in a group whose norms are significant to him. From this point of view, two types are distinguished.
A membership group is an association that includes the person to whom it is a party.
The reference social group serves the individual as a standard, a source of social norms and values, however, he is not always a member of it.
From this point of view, reference groups can be divided into ideal groups and presence groups.
The ideal group can be either real or imaginary. The main thing is that a person does not participate in it, and the adopted value system is especially attractive to him.
Reference groups are also subdivided into positive and negative.
If the value system of a positive groupthe individual completely separates and supports, then the norms accepted in the negative are perceived negatively. At the same time, the values of both groups exert a significant influence on the individual.
In order to demonstrate visually the mechanism of influence of group opinion on consciousness, we will give examples of social groups whose value system is perceived positively.
So, for a teenager a positive referencea group can be a company of high school students, whose opinion is important to him. He seeks to imitate them, wears the same clothes, listens to the music that these high school students like.
Also for the young person, the reference group can be made up by individuals belonging to completely different associations. For example, the father, the hero of the film and the coach.
In this case, each of them has certain features that are appreciated by a teenager. It can be courage, courage or independence.
Classification of social groups allowsmechanisms of the impact of society's norms on people, thanks to which it is possible to find out the causes and patterns of people's behavior. The information obtained can be applied in various fields, for example, to elucidate the mechanisms of formation of dependent behavior, and also to establish the patterns of interaction of people in groups.