Eastern Siberia: climate, nature
Eastern Siberia is part of the Asianterritory of the Russian Federation. It is located from the borders of the Pacific Ocean to the Yenisei River. This zone is characterized by an extremely harsh climate and limited fauna and flora.
Eastern and Western Siberia occupy almost twothird of the territory of Russia. Are located on a plateau. The eastern zone covers an area of about 7.2 million square meters. km. Its possessions extend right up to the Sayan mountain ranges. Most of the territory is tundra lowland. The Transbaikal mountains play a significant role in the formation of the relief.
Despite severe climatic conditions, inThere are quite a lot of big cities in Eastern Siberia. The most attractive from the economic point of view are Norilsk, Irkutsk, Chita, Achinsk, Yakutsk, Ulan-Ude, etc. Within the zone are the Transbaikal and Krasnoyarsk Territories, the Republics of Yakutia, Buryatia, Tuva and other administrative areas.The main type of vegetation is the taiga. It is washed from Mongolia to the borders of the forest-tundra. Occupies more than 5 million square meters. km. Most of the taiga is represented by coniferous forests, which constitute 70% of the local vegetation. Soils develop unevenly relative to natural zones. In the taiga zone, the soil is favorable, stable, in the tundra zone - stony, frozen.
Within the interfluve and lowlands are observedminor swamps. However, they are much smaller than in the same Western Siberia. But in the eastern region, there are often arctic deserts and deciduous plantations.
Characteristics of the relief
Eastern Siberia of Russia is at a highlevel above the sea. The whole fault is the plateau, which is in the middle of the zone. Here, the height of the platform varies from 500 to 700 meters above sea level. The relative averaging of the region is noted. The highest points are the interfluvial Lena and the Vilyui plateau - up to 1700 meters.
The basis of the Siberian platform is presenteda crystalline folded foundation on which there are huge sedimentary layers with a thickness of up to 12 kilometers. The north of the zone is defined by the Aldan Shield and the Anabar Massif. The average thickness of the soil is about 30 kilometers.To date, the Siberian platform containsseveral main species of rocks. This is marble, and crystalline shale, and charnockite, etc. The oldest deposits date back to 4 billion years. Magmatic rocks were formed as a result of eruptions. Most of these deposits are located in the Central Siberian plateau, as well as in the Tunguska basin.
The modern relief is a combination of lowlands and hills. In the valleys, rivers flow, swamps are formed, on the hills are better growing coniferous trees.
Features of the water area
It is generally accepted that the Far East is facingThe Arctic Ocean has its "facade". The eastern region borders on such seas as Kara, Siberian and Laptev. Of the largest lakes it is necessary to distinguish Baikal, Lamu, Taimyr, Pyasino and Khantaysk.
In deep valleys, rivers flow. The most significant of them are the Yenisei, Vilyui, Lena, Angara, Selenga, Kolyma, Olekma, Indigirka, Aldan, Lower Tunguska, Vitim, Yana and Khatanga. The total length of the rivers is about 1 million km. Most of the region's inland basin belongs to the Arctic Ocean. Other external water areas include rivers such as Ingoda, Argun, Shilka and Onon.The main source of power for the indoor poolEastern Siberia is a snow cover, which in large volumes melts under the influence of sunlight from the beginning of summer. The next important role in the formation of the continental water area is played by rain and groundwater. The highest level of flow in the basin is recorded in the summer.
The largest and most important river in the region is theKolyma. Its water area occupies more than 640 thousand square meters. km. The length is about 2.1 thousand km. The river takes its beginning in the Upper Kolyma Highlands. In a year the water consumption exceeds 120 cubic meters. km.
Eastern Siberia: the climate
Formation of meteorological featuresregion is determined by its territorial location. The climate of Eastern Siberia can be briefly described as continental, stably harsh. There are significant seasonal fluctuations in cloudiness, temperature, and precipitation. The Asian anticyclone forms in the region extensive areas of increased pressure, especially this phenomenon occurs in the winter. On the other hand, a strong frost makes the air circulation changeable. Because of this, the temperature fluctuations at different times of the day are more significant than in the west.The climate of Northeast Siberia is represented byvariable air masses. It is characterized by high precipitation and dense snow cover. In this region, continental streams predominate, which are rapidly cooling in the ground layer. That is why in January the temperature drops to a minimum. At this time of year the Arctic winds prevail. Often in the winter, you can observe the air temperature to -60 degrees. Basically, such minima are characteristic of hollows and valleys. On the plateau, the indicators do not drop below -38 degrees.
Warming is noted with the arrival in the region of air flows from China and Central Asia.
Climate in winter
It is not for nothing that the heaviest and harshestnatural conditions are exactly Eastern Siberia. The table of temperature indicators in winter time is proof of this (see below). These indicators are averaged over the past 5 years.
|Average temperature, С||Minimum indicators, С|
|December||- 27||- 38|
|January||- 42||- 60|
|February||- 25||- 45|
Due to increased dryness of air, constancyweather and the abundance of sunny days so low rates are transferred easier than in a humid climate. One of the defining meteorological characteristics of winter in Eastern Siberia is the absence of wind. Most of the season there is a moderate calm, so there is almost no blizzard and blizzards.
It is interesting that in the central part of Russia the frost in -15degrees is felt much stronger than in Siberia -35 C. Nevertheless, such low temperatures significantly worsen the living conditions and activities of local residents. All living quarters have thickened walls. For heating buildings use expensive fuel boilers. The weather begins to improve only with the onset of March.
In fact, the spring in this region is short, sincecomes late. Eastern Siberia, whose climate changes only with the arrival of warm Asian air currents, begins to wake up only by mid-April. It is then that the stability of positive temperatures during the day is noted. In March there is a warming, but it is insignificant. By the end of April the weather is beginning to change for the better. In May, the snow cover completely melts, vegetation blossoms.In the summer time in the south of therelatively hot. This is especially true of the steppe zone of Tuva, Khakassia and Transbaikalia. In July, the temperature rises to +25 degrees. The highest rates are observed in the flat terrain. In the valleys and highlands is still cool. If we take the whole of Eastern Siberia, then the average temperature here in summer is from +12 to +18 degrees.
Features of climate in autumn
Already in late August, the Far East beginsenvelop the first frost. They are observed mainly in the northern part of the region at night. During the day a bright sun shines, rains with wet snow, sometimes winds increase. It is worth noting that the transition to winter is much faster than from spring to summer. In the taiga, this period takes about 50 days, and in the steppe area - up to 2.5 months. All these are characteristic features that distinguish them from other northern zones of Eastern Siberia.
The climate in autumn is also represented by an abundance of rains coming from the west. From the east, the Pacific winds are blowing most often.
For the circulation of the atmosphere in Eastern Siberiacorresponds to the relief. Both the pressure and the velocity of the air mass flows depend on it. About 700 mm of precipitation a year in the region. The maximum indicator for the reporting period is 1000 mm, the minimum index is 130 mm. The level of precipitation is not clearly defined.On the plateau in the middle belt, rains are more frequent. Due to this, the amount of precipitation sometimes exceeds the 1000 mm mark. The most arid region is the Yakutia. Here the amount of precipitation varies within 200 mm. The least rainfall occurs in the period from February to March - up to 20 mm. Optimal zones for vegetation relative to precipitation are the western regions of Transbaikalia.
To date, there is no place in the world that wouldcould compete with respect to continentality and meteorological anomalies with a region called Eastern Siberia. The climate in some bands is striking in its severity. In the immediate vicinity of the polar circle lies the permafrost zone.
This area is characterized by a smallsnow cover and low temperatures throughout the year. Because of this, mountain weather and soil lose a huge amount of heat, freezing to the whole meter in depth. The soils here are mostly stony. Groundwater is poorly developed, often freezing for dozens of years.
Vegetation of the region
The nature of Eastern Siberia for the most partis represented by the taiga. Such vegetation extends hundreds of kilometers from the Lena River to Kolyma. In the south, the taiga borders on the Sea of Okhotsk. The local possessions are untouched people. Nevertheless, because of the arid climate, there is always a threat of large-scale fires. In winter, the temperature in the taiga falls to -40 degrees, but in the summer the indicators often rise to +20. Precipitation is moderate.Also the nature of Eastern Siberia is represented andzone of the tundra. This zone is adjacent to the Arctic Ocean. Soils here are bare, the temperature is low, the humidity is excessive. In mountainous areas, flowers such as cotton grass, gravel, poppy, and saxifrage are growing. From the trees of the region, you can identify spruce, willow, poplar, birch, pine.
Virtually all areas of Eastern Siberia are not rich in fauna. The reasons for this are the permafrost, lack of food and the underdevelopment of the deciduous flora.
The largest animals are the brown bear,lynx, moose and wolverine. Sometimes you can find foxes, ferrets, ermines, badgers and weasels. Musk deer, sable, deer and snow sheep live in the central strip.
Because of the eternally frozen soil there areonly a few species of rodents: squirrels, chipmunks, flying moths, beavers, groundhogs, etc. But the feathered world is extremely diverse: wood grouse, clover, hazel grouse, goose, crow, woodpecker, duck, nutcracker, kulik, etc.