Elevated leukocytes in the urine: physiological and pathological causes
Leukocytes are the white elements of blood. Depending on the changes occurring in the human body, the level of these particles may vary. The main function of leukocytes is to resist infections and damage to body tissues. Also, these particles play a crucial role in maintaining human immunity. Under what conditions can increased leukocytes in the urine or blood be observed? This will be discussed in the article.
The rate and type of leukocytes
There are five types of leukocytes, which differ in appearance and function:
The percentage of these particles is leukocyte formula, which can vary throughout the day. The normal value of leukocytes can vary within fairly wide limits.4-9x10 ^ 9 / l - the norm of the content of these elements in the body of a healthy person. The level of white blood cells depends on the age of the person and his state of health.
Elevated leukocytes in the urine or blood: causes
Such a phenomenon can be caused by such factors as: visiting the sauna or bath, prolonged exposure to the sun, intense physical exertion, smoking, stress, taking certain medications (atropine, allopurinol). There are also increased leukocytes in the blood during pregnancy (in the second half) and before menstruation. White blood cell levels may increase with:
- infectious diseases (pneumonia, erysipelas, meningitis, otitis media);
- inflammatory processes of various localization: the abdominal cavity (peritonitis, appendicitis, pancreatitis), pleura (empyema, pleurisy), subcutaneous tissue (cellulitis, abscess, felon);
- extensive burns;
- heart infarction, kidney, spleen;
- conditions after significant blood loss;
- chronic renal failure;
- diabetic coma;
- carbon monoxide poisoning;
- intoxication non-inflammatory nature.
You should know that high leukocytes in the blood are not diagnosed in people with a weakened immune system: elderly patients, drug addicts, alcoholics.In this category of people, inflammatory and infectious processes can occur at normal leukocyte levels.
How to prepare for the analysis?
Often elevated leukocytes in the urine are the result of a violation of the rules of personal hygiene. These particles can enter the urine from the genital tract, where there is a sufficiently large number of white blood cells, even in a healthy person. Therefore, before the study it is necessary to thoroughly prepare and carry out a thorough hygiene of the genital organs. In addition, to achieve the most accurate result of the analysis, it is necessary to adhere to the following recommendations:
- do not overeat on the eve of the analysis;
- stop bathing the day before the test;
- eliminate physical activity the day before the analysis.
What is the reason for the increased leukocytes in the urine or blood? The answer you learned from this article. Do not miss the slightest changes in the body, promptly contact the doctor and be healthy.