Fire safety. Primary extinguishing media and rules for their use
To my great regret, sometimes it is impossibleto predict the occurrence of certain emergencies. In this category, you can also include fires, so you should always be prepared to eliminate them as far as possible. It is important to have at your fingertips primary fire extinguishing means and the rules of using them also to know. We will talk about this in our article.
Instruction at the enterprises
At any enterprise and in every institution,be equipped with a place for storage of primary fire extinguishing agents. A manual on the rules for the use of primary fire extinguishing means must be present. Here are its main provisions:
- Know the contents of the instruction should all employees of the organization or enterprise.
- The management is fully responsible for providing all means of fire fighting, as well as for training staff on the rules of their use.
- Heads of departments and departments are also responsible for the technical condition and readiness of fire fighting equipment.
- At least once a month, it is necessary to inspect the primary means of extinguishing the fire.
- All faults must be immediately eliminated, defective extinguishers must be cleaned and replaced.
- Primary fire extinguishing media and their application(rules of use) should be familiar to everyone. They should be located in an accessible place, where they will not interfere with the evacuation of people in case of need.
- The use of fire extinguishing agents for other purposes is strictly prohibited.
- To remove fire extinguishers, a special commission is created and a protocol is drawn up.
- At the enterprise there should be persons who are responsible for carrying out this manipulation.
The instruction should be placed in the corner for fire safety.
What can be attributed to the primary means of extinguishing the fire
Almost every employee who comes to work should be provided with primary fire fighting equipment and the rules for using them. These include:
- Fire extinguishers.
- Fire-fighting cranes.
- Fire equipment, which includes:
- Containers with water.
- Boxes with sand.
- Fireproof material.
- Asbestos cloth.
4. Fire extinguishing tools:
- Scrap and others.
Requirements for the placement of extinguishing agents
Primary means for fighting firesshould be located in fire cabinets, fire shields or stands. All this is in accessible places, so that if necessary, it can be quickly applied.
In all public institutions, schools, children'sgardens and hospitals, the presence of such a corner is strictly necessary. The number of such extinguishing agents is already determined, based on the area of the premises, the properties of the materials, in each case an individual calculation is carried out.
Using tools and inventory
Almost everywhere, sand is one of the mostaccessible means for extinguishing fires. After water it is the cheapest and simplest material to cope with a fire. It is used for extinguishing combustible substances in a liquid state, for example, gasoline, oils, kerosene. Of course, this can be done only with a small fire. The rules for the use of primary fire extinguishing agents apply to sand:
- The sand should be stored in a special box with a lid.
- In some cases, you can use wide barrels of metal.
- Such containers should be located in places that are not accessible to moisture.
- Suitability of sand for use should also be checked at least 2 times a year.
During the fight against fire, it must be remembered that it is necessary to start extinguishing liquid combustibles from the edge of the combustion zone, and only then sand is poured onto the burning liquid.
Use of fireproof material
This refers to: felt, koshma, asbestos cloth. Apply them when a small fire occurs, throwing on it. Air access stops and the fire goes out.
Such material is produced in the form of a cloththe size of not less than one meter per meter. Felt and a nightmare are additionally impregnated with fire retardants. Store them in special boxes at low humidity to prevent damage most often in rolls or rolled up. Of course, everyone understands that the use of such materials in large fires will not have an effect.
Using water to extinguish a fire
In order to use water to fight fire,Do not need rules for using fire fighting equipment. This substance is also popular, like sand, and is quite affordable. When water gets to the fire, it cools it and absorbs into the surface, thereby preventing the spread of fire.
Use of water can be used to extinguish practicallyall substances that do not interact with it. This principle is based on the work of a water extinguisher, it can be used to extinguish small and uncomplicated fires. When primary fire extinguishing media are studied and the rules for using them, it is necessary to specify in which cases water can not be used:
- Alkali metals can not be extinguished with water, for example, sodium and potassium. When interacting with them, hydrogen is released, and combustion only intensifies.
- It is forbidden to use water to extinguish objects under voltage, as it conducts a current. For these purposes, a powder or carbon dioxide fire extinguisher can be used.
- It will not be possible to extinguish water with flammable liquids. Oily stains will form, which, spreading, will only increase the area of the fire. For this, it is better to use land or sand.
Knowing these rules will help to use water to fight fire more effectively.
Fire extinguishers in the fight against fire
Such devices necessarily existin each fire place. They are different, so you need to know their distinctive features, to effectively use against various fires. Fire extinguishers are:
- Chemical foam and chemical air-foam.Perfectly cope with the quenching of flammable liquids and solid materials. They can not be used to extinguish cables and wiring, as well as alcohol, acetone and alkali metals.
- Air-foam fire extinguishers are designed to combat the ignition of solid objects and flammable liquids.
- Gas fire extinguishers can have a different filler:
- Carbon dioxide. It is the most common variety. Used to extinguish wiring, solids.
- Chladone fire extinguishers are designed to extinguish all types of combustible and smoldering materials and electrical networks.
- Powder coating. You can use them to extinguish solid, liquid and gaseous substances, as well as electrical installations.
How to use a fire extinguisher in case of fire?
In order to use the rightequipment and materials for fighting fire, it is necessary to study not only the rules for the use of extinguishing media (fire extinguishers), but also to study the instructions for a specific device in advance. It may vary slightly, depending on the type of fire extinguisher. Here are the basic rules for using the device to combat fire, it is desirable to adhere to them:
- Approach with a fire extinguisher to the source of fire is necessary on the side where the least chance of getting under the influence of smoke and fire.
- If you extinguish the fire in the street and there is a wind, then it is necessary to approach from the windward side.
- Remove the seal and remove the lock.
- Activate the mechanism by pressing the button or lever.
- To direct a stream of a liquid or a powder by means of a socket or a hose it is necessary not on tongues of a flame, and on the burning substance.
- If the fire spreads in a hard-to-reach place, then the stream should be directed so that it does not interfere with the obstacle.
- If the hearth is too large and there are several fire extinguishers, then there is a reason to use them simultaneously, and not in turn, of course, if there is a necessary number of people.
- It is necessary to extinguish the fire before the decay ceases. Otherwise, it is likely that the fire will again inflame, especially in windy weather.
- After you used a fire extinguisher, it must be recharged or replaced with a new one and put back into the fire-fighting area.
These simple rules will help to cope with moreeffectively with a fire. It should be noted that the result of the use of a fire extinguisher will depend not only on its variety, but also on how well a person is familiar with the primary fire extinguishing means and the rules for using them.
Using a fire hydrant
Such cranes can be seen in almost allinstitutions, whether industrial or administrative. Necessarily, there is a responsible person who monitors the safety and serviceability of the fire truck. If there is no such, then there may appear willing to profit with non-ferrous metal.
Firefighting cranes can be used not only as independent means of extinguishing a fire, but also as an aid to fire engines. The structure of the crane includes:
- Water supply valve.
- A fire hose that connects to the valve.
- The fire barrel.
If a fire occurs, it is necessary to open the crane door, roll out the sleeve and check its connection with the tap. Only then you can supply water by unscrewing the valve.
It is most convenient to carry out all these actions together,one holds the sleeve, and the other opens the water. During the fire extinguishing, it is necessary to keep the focus of the fire in sight and to be directed towards the spread of fire. A stream of water should be directed to the place of ignition.
Firefighters periodically also have to pass the test, and the information is recorded in a special magazine.
Control over fire protection means
The primary means of firefighting and the rules for using them in the energy sector are especially important. The number of funds, their placement is regulated by the following documents:
- Federal Law 123 and FZ-315.
- SNiP 21-01-97.
- GOST 12.1.004-91.
- Norms of fire safety.
- List of technical means.
Primary extinguishing media and regulationsusing them in the Russian Federation are listed in the laws, but the main document for a fire safety engineer is an instruction on the use and maintenance of fire fighting equipment. There are many branches of the national economy, and in each case the contents of the instruction may differ, but there are some provisions that must be present in each:
- The instruction should be the same as the fire safety logs.
- It is mandatory to instruct and train employees so that everyone knows the rules for using primary fire extinguishing means. All this is recorded in a special journal.
- Responsible for fire safety must regularly calculate the need for protective equipment and submit information to the administration.
- The fire extinguishing means are regularly checked for serviceability.
- The main document should be the log of primary fire extinguishing media.
Fighting fire in the home
Rules for the use of primary meansfire extinguishers (fire extinguishers) will be useful not only at work, but at home. It is desirable to have such a device at hand and teach them to use all household members.
It is important to plan your actions in advance in case of such a situation. If there is no fire extinguisher, then you can use improvised means:
- First of all, it's water. It is always at home at hand, but you need to know that it is impossible to extinguish the appliances under the current.
- Powder fire extinguishers contain soda, and it always is in the locker in the kitchen. By the way, it is possible to extinguish and electric appliances.
- Even the use of salt and detergent will help to isolate the access of oxygen to the fire and extinguish a small fire.
- You can, in extreme cases, use the ground in flower pots.
- If the furniture burns, then a sprinkling of a dense fabric or blankets will block the access of oxygen, and the fire will go out.
Fire is a terrible force that can do anything.sweep away in its path. If you are fully armed, have fire extinguishing tools at hand and know the rules for their use, the fire will not catch you unawares and you will always manage to cope with it. It is better to prevent such situations, and for this it is necessary to always and everywhere observe the rules of fire safety and teach them children from an early age.