Flag and coat of arms of Yaroslavl: photo, history and description
Most Russian state symbols- A complicated story. Russian autocrats - Peter the Great, Catherine II and others - periodically conducted companies to develop "brandbooks" for the country's largest cities, often without regard for local traditions.The work involved heraldmasters fromGermany, France and other countries that simply used stories and symbols from collections that generalize European experience. The coat of arms of Yaroslavl, an ancient Russian city, has one of the oldest stories on the territory of the country, although there are ambiguities in it.
The capital of the Golden Ring of Russia
Long since the Volga River plays a crucial role in destinyRussia, personifying for many the soul of this country. The first Volga Christian city, mentioned in ancient chronicles, in particular in the "Tale of Bygone Years", was Yaroslavl. Today it is the largest among the ancient Russian cities that have become part of the famous "Golden Ring", and since its founding - at the turn of the X-XI centuries - Yaroslavl was used by Russian princes as a stronghold of Christianization of the Volga region and the creation of a single Old Russian state.
There are several local folk legends,associated with the emergence of the city, with the name of its founder. The echoes of these legends also contain the coat of arms of Yaroslavl, although they were recorded much later, and their truth is often questioned by many historians.
Yaroslav the Wise
The year of foundation of the city is 1010, andPrince, who laid it, called the son of the first-rector of Russia Vladimir St. Yaroslav Vladimirovich, nicknamed the Wise. He came from the Rurikovich family and occupied the princely throne in Rostov and Novgorod, and was also the Grand Duke of Kiev. Yaroslav belongs to the rulers of the appanage princedoms, to which the Old Russian state was divided, who understood that only together can one resist the raids of nomads from the southern steppes. His reign in the capital of Kiev was marked by the appearance of the first set of laws - "Russian Truth". It became for the great Russian principality the most important sign of a single statehood.
The very name of the Volga city was formed fromthe name of this ruler with the help of an ancient possessive suffix. Legend of the events that led to the coat of arms of Yaroslavl with a golden ax, was preserved in several editions: compact and more detailed.
Fight with a wild beast
Brief version of Yaroslav's "bear history"described how, during the military and missionary campaign of the prince, who then held the throne in Rostov, he found himself at the place where the Kotorosli River flowed into the Volga. The soldiers accompanying the prince lingered in the impassable forest and Yaroslav went to the high Volga shore alone. Suddenly a huge bear appeared from the thicket and rushed to a man armed only with a battle ax.
When the guards from the guards found theirprince, they saw Yaroslav standing on the shore, and at his feet-a huge beast, killed by an ax. In honor of his victory, and the miraculous rescue, Jaroslav ordered to build a church in the name of the prophet Elijah, which began the new town, and a bear with a battle ax on his shoulder adorned with a coat of arms of Yaroslavl.
There was also a longer version. In the place of the confluence of Kotorosli in the Volga, there was a Finno-Ugric settlement under the name of Bear Corn. Once the inhabitants of this pagan town, distinguished by violent disposition and predatory habits, looted a large commercial caravan that sailed across the Volga. Yaroslav with his team came to the walls of Medvezhy Ugly, demanding that he be given to punish those guilty of such outrage.
Instead, pagans, who according to the versionsome scientists, professed an ancient bear cult, they released these bloodthirsty beasts to the prince. But Yaroslav and his volunteers did not flinch and did not run, but chopped this "savage" army with battle axes. The coat of arms of the city of Yaroslavl with a bear is a tribute to this bright event in the history of the city that arose soon after the legendary pagan settlement.
In the beginning there was a fish
Entering Yaroslavl in the first centralized Russian state took place around 1463 and was peaceful. Since that time, the city is registered in the register of possessions of the Grand Duke of All Russia.
The Great Sovereigns seal of Ivan IV, on whichthe arms of all territories included in the Moscow State were collected, became the first Russian heraldic work of such a volume. As Moscow joins new territories - Novgorod, Kazan, Siberia - the main seal of Ivan the Terrible changed.
Among the thirteen characters shown on printsample of 1583 and embodying all the possessions of the Russian Tsar, first appears the arms of the city of Yaroslavl. Inside the circle formed by the inscription: "The seal of Yaroslavl" was depicted a fish with a head turned to the left. For a city on the bank of a large river, fishing has always been an important part of the way of life of its inhabitants, but the full argumentation of the appearance of such variant of the Yaroslavl coat of arms has not been preserved and in the future the main symbol of the city has changed.
"Titular" by Alexei Mikhailovich
"The Grand Sovereign Book or the Root of Russian("Tsar's Titular") is a famous manuscript book, made in four copies (today known for three) - the main reference guide to heraldry, relating to the domestic and foreign policy of the Russian state of the XVII century.
In it, made in 1672, unknownRussian masters led by boyar Artamon Matveev, who was at the head of the Posolsky order, first published a bear - the coat of arms of Yaroslavl. The history of subsequent modifications of this emblem is associated with various types of combat weapons, which he holds in his paws. Specialists in ancient weapons identified several types of battle ax, relating to the stabbing and chopping cold pole weapon.
Protazan, bertysh, ax
In the first known version, included in the"Titular", as the description goes - the coat of arms of Yaroslavl is a bear with a protazan. This is the name of the piercing weapon, which is a double-edged, flat trident of a special form planted on a long handle. In Russian heraldry protazan meant belonging to the Rurikovich family.
Sometimes the heraldic weapon of the Yaroslavl bearthey are called a burdock or a coin, but a common name, which is included in the description that the modern coat of arms and the Yaroslavl flag have - "a golden ax, on the same handle". In addition to the differences in "armament"
By the end of the 18th century, during the administrativereforms that have been carried out since the time of Peter and Catherine, the system of urban and local symbols throughout the empire was subjected to recycling. In the first place, this was the case for cities that belonged to the category of provincial centers. One of the first to be approved and put into practice the coat of arms and the flag of Yaroslavl. In 1730, the city coat of arms was agreed upon, on the basis of which seals for official papers, military banners and standards of regiments stationed in Yaroslavl, etc., were made.
Attempt to finally bring the Russianheraldry to the European standards and to a uniform style uniformity in the depiction of the most significant state symbols was undertaken by Alexander II. The development of the coat of arms of the city of Yaroslavl and the Yaroslavl province was entrusted, among others, to the prominent herald master of the time, Bernard Vasilievich Kyon. First, the title coat of arms was adopted, which was part of the Great Emblem of the Empire. It was a silver shield, in it - a black bear on its hind legs, a head - straight, in the left paw - a golden ax.
The coat of arms, in which the shield was complemented by the crowning of itimperial crown and framed with an oak wreath with Andrew's ribbon for unknown reasons was not officially approved by the highest decree, although it was actively used as a city and provincial symbol prior to the Soviet era.
After October 1917, together with othersymbols of the monarchy was derived from the official appeal and the coat of arms of the city of Yaroslavl. Photos related to the life of this region, referring to the years of Soviet power, however, show that the historical bear with the ax has not completely disappeared.
The Yaroslavl coat of arms was too significanthistory, to ignore it for the sake of ideological struggle and not be used in patriotic education. As the ancient coat of arms of Yaroslavl looks like, which means its filling, not only historians, but also every schoolboy knew in the city.
Without the legendary beast it was impossible to manage in the dayscelebrating the round date - the 950th anniversary of the founding of the city, which was widely celebrated in 1960. Yaroslavl's coat of arms, his photo, were replicated in postage stamps and envelopes, in posters and albums, in the design of city streets and squares.
The next significant date is a thousand-year daybirth - the city met, already having the officially approved flag and the coat of arms of Yaroslavl. Photo of citizens and numerous guests of the city, made during the celebration, captured the diverse incarnations of the historical symbol. The bear with the ax met in the form of huge sculptures in squares and streets, it adorned ancient and modern facades of buildings, flowerbeds in gardens and parks.
The beast, which for many is not onlya symbol of one ancient Russian city, and the whole country, flaunts on T-shirts Yaroslavl "Shinnik" and hockey sweaters "Locomotive" - not the last clubs in the domestic sport. He is familiar with the connoisseurs of the popular products of the Yaroslavl distillery and brewery and of course, to the numerous tourists traveling on the Golden Ring of Russia.
A masterpiece of modern heraldmasters
What does the coat of arms of Yaroslavl and Yaroslavl look like?region, introduced in 2002 in the State Heraldic Register of the Russian Federation? The full version of it - one of the best creations of domestic specialists in the field of state symbols. Like most similar attributes, it does not have a canonical pictorial solution, which is mandatory for execution. The main thing is that it fully corresponds to the description having legislative force:
In the golden shield, the black rising bear, the leftpaw holding a silver ax on his shoulder with a blade upwards, planted on a red (chervlennoe) shaft. The shield of the shield is crowned with a purple prince's cap with ermine - in two rows of tails - with a fringe and three arches, of which two side are decorated with pearls, and the central one with gems.
Shield hold: on the right, a gold-deer silver deer with golden mane and hoofs, with a gold collar decorated with semiprecious stones, to the left - a black bear on its guard - with a head of full-face - with a scarlet tongue and crowned with an imperial crown. Shchitoderzhateli stand on the patterned green foot.