Frontal sinus osteoma: treatment, removal, consequences
Various violations in the formation processcells in physiological tissues provoke the formation of tumors. In turn, neoplasms are classified into good and malignant. For the first, a relatively slow growth is characteristic. Benign tumors do not cause violations of other systems and organs. To this category of neoplasms is the osteoma of the frontal sinus. Next, consider this pathology in more detail.
Sinus osteoma is a processimproper differentiation of bone tissue. This neoplasm does not form malignant cells. Osteoma of the sinus does not provoke disturbances in the brain. Pathology can begin its development in childhood (early) age and complete its full formation by 18-20 years.
The initial course of the disease is practicallyunnoticed. The osteoma of the frontal sinus can be revealed completely by accident, in the process of any accompanying laboratory tests. For example, often neoplasm is detected by radiography about head injuries. In the process of tumor development, there is no metastasis of cells. Neoplasm does not affect the conjugate areas of physiological tissues.
Specialists at the present time do not know the exact factors provoking the neoplasm. Nevertheless, several of the most common alleged causes are called. Among them:
- Frequent colds, complicated by sinusitis and other sinusitis.
- Disturbances in genetic differentiation of bone tissue during the intrauterine period of development. These disorders can be provoked by viral and bacterial infectious agents.
- Lack of vitamin D and calcium deficiency.
- Injuries and all sorts of consequences of laboratory diagnostic procedures, which are associated with the puncture of the maxillary sinus.
- Irradiation, radiographic including.
- Unfavorable environmental conditions.
Osteoma of the bone as a whole can develop not only inwedge, frontal, latticed bone of the skull. Often, the neoplasm is identified in the bodies of the vertebrae and lower limbs. Osteoma in the spinous processes is less common. In these cases, it is necessary to carry out a differentiated diagnosis, excluding the development of osteophytes on the soil of a continuous current change in the structure of the vertebral column of the degenerative type.
Frontal sinus osteoma: a description
This localization is considered the mostcommon for this type of tumor. The course of the disease is almost asymptomatic, prolonged. In general, the frontal sinus osteoma without special research activities is very difficult to diagnose. The specialist can assume the disease in case of a change in the voice of the patient, in the presence of severe pain in the head of a permanent character. Unilateral defeat, for example, the osteoma of the right frontal sinus, is accompanied by visual disturbances on one eye. The bilateral shape develops quite quickly. It manifests itself against Gardner's disease. It is believed that this is one of the most dangerous forms in which the osteoma of the frontal sinus is manifested. The operation should be carried out in this case as soon as possible. Against the background of this type of pathology, neoplasms can be detected by local groups in the bones of the lower extremities, the vertebral column.
How is osteoma of the frontal sinus manifested? Symptoms of pathology are manifested only in those cases when the tumor, expanding, begins to affect the conjugated physiological tissues. In this case, there may be a violation in the circulation of certain areas. This, in turn, provokes atrophy in the tissues. As a result, the normal functioning of one or another section is disrupted. As observations show, manifestations of pathology depend on its classification. For example, experts identify a hyperplastic tumor. It develops as a result of the rapid growth of ordinary cells of the bone, layered on the physiological layer. As a result, a pathological thickening in a certain area of the element is revealed. Along with this, a thin tissue is seen around the hypertrophied area. This, in turn, increases the likelihood of fractures and cracks.
This type of tumor is formed from cellsconnective and cartilaginous tissues, followed by calcification and deposition of various kinds of salts. In most cases, the hyperplastic form of the pathology is the initial stage of the osteophyte. It is localized in the spinous processes of the spine. Pathology can manifest itself in the form of typical symptoms of osteochondrosis. During the examination, a dense neoplasm may be found on the spinous processes. It is painless and motionless when palpated. The physiological volume of mobility is maintained within the normal range.
Manifestations of a hyperplastic form of pathology
Symptoms of the disease may bevisible physical defects. For example, it can be the formation of a build-up, the thickening of the bone, which is distinguished by asymmetry in the face or other part of the body. Against the background of squeezing blood vessels and nerve fibers, pain and numbness can occur. In particular, these manifestations are clearly observed in the region of the lower extremities. In some cases, neuropathy may develop, and the lack of blood supply to the affected part of the body may develop. With hyperplastic osteoma in the frontal sinus, there is a feeling of compression inside the nasal cavity and in the forehead. The nasal mucosa is usually dry and very prone to infection. This causes patients to have a chronic rhinitis that can not be eliminated by vasoconstrictor. The most dangerous manifestation, accompanied by unilateral pathology, in particular, the osteoma of the left frontal sinus, is a sharp reduction in visual acuity of one eye. To this, over time, attacks of severe pain in the head, as well as epileptic clinical seizures, accompanied by clonic convulsions, may be added. In early childhood it can provoke paralysis of the nervous system, cardiac arrest and respiration.
Diagnosis of pathology
As mentioned above, to identify the diseaseit is quite difficult, because throughout the growth of the neoplasm (which is 3-4 years) patients turn to specialists with complaints characteristic of other syndromes and conditions. Differential diagnosis is performed after the patient undergoes an X-ray examination. The detection of the disease is carried out with the help of a histological analysis of hypertrophied tissue. In this case, the expert should exclude a malignant tumor, poliomyelitis, ricket changes. Primary examination is performed using the X-ray method and computer tomogram. At this stage, it is important to exclude sarcoma and Ewing's tumor. These neoplasms are distinguished by a high degree of malignancy and, rapidly progressing, will soon cause a lethal outcome.
Frontal sinus osteoma: treatment
To date, there is only one wayelimination of pathology. It is an excision of excessively overgrown bone tissue. Removal of the osteoma of the frontal sinus is carried out using general anesthesia. During the intervention, the skin is opened. In special cases, trepanation of the cranial bone may be necessary. After this, the surgeon performs a thorough resection of the altered area. At the same time, osteosclerosis areas with damaged blood vessels are also removed. During the intervention, not only the neoplasm itself, but also a part of the plate of healthy bone tissue, on which the tumor was located, is eliminated. Removal of frontal sinus osteoma is prescribed in the event that the lesion is actively expanding and there are sufficiently pronounced signs of deterioration in the patient's health. If neoplasm does not develop and does not cause anxiety, it is enough to conduct regular examination and dynamic observation.
After surgery, the patientis being restored. At the first stage, rehabilitation takes place in a surgical hospital. Here, measures are taken to prevent the secondary appearance of the neoplasm and to accelerate the regenerative processes. In the future, rehabilitation consists in the correct organization of the rest and labor regime. The patient is assigned a special diet with a large amount of calcium. To successfully prevent the development of pathology, it is necessary to carry out preventive measures. They should be aimed at reducing the likelihood of the occurrence of colds for at least the first six months after surgery. In general, to prevent complications in both primary and secondary development of the disease, it is necessary to visit a doctor in a timely manner. Early diagnosis in many cases avoids the severe consequences of osteoma.