How many federal districts are there in Russia and what are they intended for?
Over the past twenty-five years, our countrysurvived a lot of upheaval, directly affecting its future future. The first of them is the collapse of the USSR, which meant the scrapping of the whole system of state administration, then the formation of a new country - the Russian Federation.
Russia has always been a huge territorialeducation, the effective management of which presents certain difficulties. The Russian Empire was held at the expense of the autocratic power of the emperor, who controlled even the smallest processes with the apparatus of the bureaucracy, it is with a huge scale of the country that quite frequent reforms in the management of regions are connected. The first time it happened in the reign of Peter the Great, who divided the entire territory of the country into a province led by governors, while the heads of regions were also accountable to special colleges, so the tsar tried to introduce a three-degree system of government. However, some regions were equal in territory to some European countries, therefore, a division into a larger number of provinces was additionally effected. In general, the reform to some extent streamlined management, and the center was given the opportunity to more quickly control the remote regions. However, there was still no clear subordination.
Correcting the situation, the Empress is conducting a newreform. In 1775, a decree was issued to divide Russia into 51 provinces, which, in turn, were divided into counties. At the head, as before, was the governor, but further significant changes were made. For control, the post of governor-general is introduced, which in its turn united several areas, in total from 1775 to 1917, 20 governor-generals and a special administrative-territorial unit - the Caucasian vicegerency - were created. As you can see, such a system is very similar to the federal districts of Russia, whose composition has also been repeatedly changed. The government of Catherine II did this in order to strengthen supervision over local authorities, to put the governors' actions under control and to reduce the likelihood of popular speeches and discontent. Indeed, this has significantly increased the efficiency of the administrative bureaucracy.
Soviet management system
The revolution of 1917 brought itsgovernance of the country. The Bolsheviks initially gave the suburbs and remote territories considerable power. What subsequently led even to the overthrow of Soviet power in some regions. Realizing its error, the SNK quickly began to change the tactics and strategy of the managerial system. While forming the USSR, federal principles of state organization were declared, but in fact all party officials controlled the whole power, and if we draw an analogy with the Russian empire, it becomes clear that the essence has not changed. And only the name has changed. So, instead of governors and other regional administrators, party secretaries were introduced at different levels, who supported the iron discipline in the "patrimonies" entrusted to them. The degree of centralization in the Soviet period reached its apogee and its level was much higher than the imperial one.
How many federal districts are there in Russia?
The collapse of the USSR and the subsequent "parade of sovereignties"put the RF almost to the brink of collapse. Many parts of the state introduced their own legislation, which was contrary to the federal law, the controllability of regions from the capital was almost zero. In this situation, Russian President Vladimir Putin decided to revive the interregional administration with a clear and rigid pattern of subordination. In May 2000, the presidential decree On Federal Districts followed. A total of 7 units were created. That's how many federal districts in Russia were originally. The boundaries were taken by analogy with the division of offices of the General Prosecutor's Office of the Russian Federation. A clear three-level system of administrative control begins to be built up. The number of federal districts in Russia has changed more than once, it has been connected with political events and with geographical convenience. The regulatory framework for these changes is represented by a wide range of federal laws. The appointment of a plenipotentiary representative of the president in the federal district is made by the head of state.
The political reasons for the changes and the regulatory framework
And how many federal districts in Russia for thisthe moment, considering the recent transformations (in particular, the North-Caucasian Federal District was singled out from the Southern Federal District)? In March 2014, in connection with the political events in Ukraine and the referendum in Crimea, another federal district was formed-the Krymsky FD. Thus, we can say that there are a total of 9 federal districts, answering the question about how many federal districts are in Russia. The creation of such a system of power allowed to strengthen the control of the federal center over the regions, without violating the basic principles of the asymmetric federation, which the Russian Federation is under the Constitution. The legislative base of the subjects of Russia was brought into full compliance with federal law. The federal districts of Russia on the map of the country are highlighted in different colors, which allows you to quickly figure out which district and which regions are included in this administrative-territorial unit.
The final picture of the administrative-territorial structure of the Russian Federation
We have already figured out the number of FDs, and now we'll figure out which federal districts in Russia exist. And this is how it looks:
- Central Federal District (Moscow).
- North-West Federal District (St. Petersburg).
- Southern FD (Rostov-on-Don).
- North-Caucasian Federal District (Pyatigorsk).
- Far Eastern Federal District (Khabarovsk).
- Siberian Federal District (Novosibirsk).
- Ural FD (the city of Yekaterinburg).
- Privolzhsky Federal District (Nizhny Novgorod).
- Crimean Federal District (Simferopol).
All these units are subordinate to the authorizedthe representative of the head of state, who, in turn, is directly subordinate to the president of the Russian Federation. Its sphere of competence includes oversight and control functions, for which the apparatus was created, which consists of different districts from different managements. For today it can be said that the federal districts of Russia (the composition of these units) correspond to the needs declared by the authorities.