How to make a list of used sources. Rules for the list of references
A scientific work or publication is always based on any sources from which the basic concepts, facts, axioms are taken, and the most important thoughts are gleaned.
Therefore, each article, abstract, project, monograph and other works of authors must necessarily have a list of sources used, designed in accordance with the requirements of current GOST standards.
What can be taken as a source
Sources for obtaining information in order to create a completely new work can be regulations, reference books, scientific publications, library catalogs, periodicals, textbooks, manuals, guidelines, electronic resources.
It is the literature used to write any scientific work that confirms its authenticity,good study and analysis of information material and guarantees the quality of the created labor.
Each scientific work requires the author to use a certain number of sources. The more substantial and more voluminous scientific work, the greater the amount of specialized material that needs to be worked out.
Most often there is a main source on which the work is based. The list of sources used and the literature can be either single (have one main source) or multiple.
Types and placement of links in the work
References in the text serve as a guideline in which part of a particular material was used. Links are divided into the following types:
- located inside the text (inline);
- under the text, after the line at the very bottom of the document, called footnotes (subscript);
- located after the entire text of the document, in its separate part, in other words, callouts (textual).
Text references are included in the list of references and literature used, attached at the very end of the scientific work. They are continuous numbering and are issued in accordance with the rules of GOST.
Even if a link to the same source is given several times in the work, the source is indicated once in the list.
The role of the list of references in the work
References are printed on a separate page at the end of the paper between the opinion and the appendices. Each new source is numbered in order and indicated with a red line.
Do not underestimate the importance of the list of sources for all labor in general. Small sections of scientific work: conclusion, list of sources used, introduction - although they are the shortest of its parts, but in order of importance and informational content they are not inferior to the main sections.
The introduction carries general information about the problem being described, its essence, importance, allows you to entice and interest the reader.
In the conclusion all the generalized conclusions are given after the analysis.
And the bibliography lists the most important links to information, that is, the whole essence, the core on which the work is built. Without it, scientific work has no evidence under itself, recognized facts, which means it can carry untruthful, fictional or false information.
List of references
Making a list of used sources for convenience and quick search for the desired is in alphabetical order. Moreover, if the names of books or the names of authors in a foreign language are present, they are indicated in the same list by a new alphabetical series, after all sources are listed in Russian.
The entire list conventionally consists of legal acts and other publications (monographs, articles), as if divided into two parts. There is no visual separation between the parts; the list of sources goes in one continuous row.
List of used sources: part one
Regulations should be specified in accordance with their power of action in descending order:
- international legislative and legal acts, the Constitution;
- laws, decrees, orders and resolutions of the president;
- government regulations and ordinances;
- charters and laws of subjects of the Russian Federation;
- documents that have become invalid (with an indication in brackets about this).
Equal in force regulatory documents are placed in the list chronologically from later adopted by law to earlier ones. Reference to the source is obligatory, where the legal act comes from (Constitution, code, electronic resource, etc.).A separate item is not taken to specify the acts of additions and changes related to the laws in the list of sources used.
1. The law of the Krasnodar Territory “On private enterprises of the Krasnodar Territory” dated July 20, 2007 with additions dated January 22, 2008 // Newspaper of Russia. 2009. - September 30th.
The second part of the list of references
The second part may contain the following editions:
- monographs, collections of articles;
- books, textbooks, manuals;
- articles, publications in periodicals;
- electronic resources.
The list of sources used is made in this order:
- surname, initials of the author (up to three authors); if there are more of them, then after the third it is written "and others";
- purpose of publication (manual, textbook, collection of articles);
- city of publication; the abbreviation of the city of Moscow (M.) and St. Petersburg (St. Petersburg) is allowed;
- publishing house;
- the year of publishing;
- the total number of pages in the source, for the article - the number of pages on which it is placed in the collection.
The article is indicated in the list with the name of not only the publication itself, but also the periodical in which it is printed, the number of the journal, the page of the newspaper and the release date.
The list of used sources is arranged in a strictly defined sequence, using punctuation marks in accordance with the requirements and rules of the Russian language.
1. Kovalev A.V. The historical development of the banking system: a manual for universities. - SPb .: Publisher VVM, 2007. - 334 p.
2. Rasputin OM Social formation of a society // Culture and development: materials of a regional conference of scientists. Chisinau: MMP, 2003. - p. 26–34.
The list of electronic resources is made in the same order, according to the same rules as the list of monographs, books, articles, but is supplemented with a link and the date of reference to the resource.
1. Borisov Yu.N. Optimal Enterprise Resource Management - Sochi: The Economist, 2011. - 347 p. [Electronic resource]. URL: http: // .... (11/26/2012).
The reliability of information depends on the sources from which it will be taken and to what extent the authors of the developed material are recognized and respected in their field of science. The selection of high-quality material taken for work and study is the most important step in writing any scientific work.
In conclusion, it is worth noting that a properly compiled list of sources used is an important part of the work as a whole.Therefore, special attention should be paid to the absence of spelling and punctuation errors, typos in the names and initials of the authors.