Insulation: types, characteristics, purpose and use
In any temperature mode, insulation does not hurt. If properly implemented, it will become noticeably warmer in the winter in the rooms, and cooler in the summer. allows you to create a comfortable microclimate, as regards not only residential apartments and houses, but also premises for work. Visiting the store, you can make sure that modern manufacturers offer for sale heat insulation in a wide range. It has the form of harnesses, rolls, granules, powders, as well as perlite sand. In addition, heat insulation can be represented by plates, blocks, bricks and cylinders.
If you understand the characteristics, you can choose the option of insulation that is needed. The main property of thermal insulation is its thermal conductivity, it indicates how much heat passes through this material. Today, two types of insulation are known:
The first type allows you to reduce heat consumption, which is ensured by reducing infrared radiation. Preventing insulation is used in most cases and involves the use of insulation with low thermal conductivity. The following materials can be used in this capacity:
Organic based heat preventive insulation
Considering the types of insulation, you should pay attention to those that are made on an organic basis. They are widely represented on the modern market, and for their manufacture natural raw materials are used, for example, wastes from the woodworking industry and the agricultural industry. The composition of such insulation includes cement and plastic.
The material is highly resistant to fire, it does not respond to biological effects and does not get wet. It is used where the surface does not heat above 150 ° C. Organic insulation is used as an inner layer in the arrangement of multilayer structures. This should include plastered facades or triple panels.
Characteristics of arbolitovy heater
Thermal insulation on an organic basis is precisely the arbolitovy heater, which is a new building material from:
- chopped straw;
At the core are chemical elements and cement. Additives are:
- soluble glass;
- alumina sulphate;
- calcium chloride.
At the final stage of the manufacture of arbolite thermal insulation, the material is processed by a mineralizer. This type of insulation has a density ranging from 500 to 700 kg / m3. Compressive strength reaches 3.5 MPa. The coefficient of thermal conductivity is 0.12 W / (m · K) maximum. It is also important to know the flexural strength, it reaches 1 MPa.
Purpose and use of arbolita
Considering the above type of insulation, you should closer familiarize yourself with its purpose. It is used for the construction of partitions and walls in private low-rise construction. Products can be presented:
- floor slabs;
- in blocks.
The first are used to warm the floor and roof. As for the floor slabs, they are reinforced with reinforced concrete structures. For monolithic construction used arbolitovy solution.Today, another type of this insulation is known - cobet concrete, which is a filler of hemp fire.
Arbolitovy blocks for thermal insulation keep within after drawing a layer of a mix for installation. Next, install the unit, which should first be moistened with water. The product is pressed against the previous one, its position can be adjusted relative to the main masonry with the help of a hammer with a rubber nozzle. Excess mixture will need to be cleaned with a trowel. Works can be carried out only at air temperature not below +6 ° C. The solution should be quite thick, because if its consistency turns out to be liquid, then the material will shrink.
Characteristics of insulation from chipboard
Considering the types of insulation, you should pay attention to the insulation of chipboard, which is based on small chips. It is 9/10 of the volume of the material, but the rest is antiseptic, synthetic resins, water repellent and antiprene. The density of this material is 1000 kg / m3maximum. The minimum value is 500.
You may be interested in humidity as well, this insulation in this insulation varies from 5 to 12%.Strength on stretching reaches 0.5 MPa. Absorption material reaches 30% of the volume. The minimum value is 5%. You may also be interested in tensile strength, it reaches 0.5 MPa.
Characteristics of polyurethane foam
Before choosing a solution, you should consider the types and characteristics of insulation. Among other options should be distinguished polyurethane foam insulation, which is based on polyester. To the ingredients are added:
The components under the influence of the catalyst enter into a chemical reaction, and a new substance arises. It has a high level of noise absorption, is not afraid of moisture and is chemically inert. Polyurethane foam insulation is an excellent insulation, because it is applied by spraying, so the wizard has the opportunity to handle the ceiling and walls with a complex configuration. Cold bridges are excluded.
This sprayed insulation has a density that reaches 80 kg / m3. When this indicator reaches 50 kg / m3, polyurethane foam becomes moisture resistant.You may also be interested in the heat conductivity coefficient, it reaches 0.028 W / (m · K). This parameter is the best among modern insulating materials.
Purpose of polyurethane foam
Polyurethane foam has unique properties, thanks to which it is widely used in various fields of human activity. This insulation is used for insulation of internal and external walls, window openings, etc. This material can be found on the construction sites of capital residential buildings, cottages, individual houses, hangar warehouses, potato storages and vegetable stores.
This sprayed insulation has quite important advantages, which are expressed in the carrying and insulating ability. Efficiency increases when polyurethane foam forms the basis of sandwich panels used in the construction of pre-fabricated civilian objects. The latter may also have an industrial purpose. The cold resistance of the material is quite high, as is the waterproofing ability.
Choosing insulation for the home, you should pay attention to the fiberboard, which is a thin and narrow wood shavings, called wood wool.Cement or magnesite component is added to them, which ultimately allows to obtain fiberboard. It is offered for sale in the form of plates.
The material is not afraid of biological and chemical effects, perfectly protects against noise and can be used in wet conditions, such as swimming pools. This insulation for a house has a density of up to 500 kg / m3. Fire resistance at thermal insulation is quite high. The coefficient of thermal conductivity is 0.1 W / (m · K).
The appointment and use of fiberboard
Fiberboard is used for thermal insulation of coatings and walls, and structural - for frame walls, partitions and floors, but only in dry conditions. Today, the main use of fiberboard is expressed in the installation of permanent formwork during construction.
Plates are not removed, according to the principle of some other types of formwork, they perform a constructive function and become part of the wall or floor. With regard to the characteristics of use, the plates are installed in parallel at a certain distance, which will determine the thickness of the wall. After fastening, the grout is filled, most often with concrete.Then the system of the liquid mixture and formwork is left until it hardens.
Ecowool is made from waste paper and cardboard production. If to use for this purpose waste paper, then the material will have not so high quality. It will become dirty faster, moreover, it will be different heterogeneity. Among other important characteristics, sound insulation should be highlighted, which in this case is very high. A layer with a thickness of 1.5 cm will absorb 9 dB of extraneous noise.
The ability to heat insulation is also impressive, but the downside is its reduction during operation. Over time, ecowool loses up to 1/5 of its volume. It absorbs moisture well, this parameter can reach 15% of the volume. When laying by the method of continuous spraying there are no seams, which is an undoubted advantage.
Appointment and use of ecowool
The coating is widely used for sound and heat insulation of various premises, which may have industrial, residential and public use. And you can use the material for thermal insulation of the facade, insulation of walls, roofs and attics.Predominantly, the work is performed by the method of dry blowing, but the material can be applied over the existing insulation.
This roof insulation allows you to get a seamless coating that solves the problem with icicles. The underlay involves the use of a special installation, in the bunker of which the cotton wool is loosened, and then fed through a hose with a nozzle. This method of application allows the material to penetrate into hard-to-reach areas, closing all gaps and gaps.
Cellulose insulation for the roof can be used in the repair work of the facilities in operation and in the construction of new ones. Open blowing is used to isolate horizontal and inclined surfaces, among them should be highlighted:
- interfloor overlappings;
- ground floor.
Inorganic heat insulators: mineral wool
Mineral wool may be stone or slag. For the production of the latter, slags formed during casting of nonferrous and ferrous metals are used. Stone wool is based on rocks, and for their binding is used a component based on phenol or urea.The first is most suitable, because mineral wool in this case is less afraid of water than the one that contains urea. Flammability of this material is zero.
It is able to counteract the spread of fire, so it can be used as a means to protect against fire. Chemical passivity is high, but hygroscopicity is low. The material is characterized by excellent sound absorption, therefore, mineral wool is used very often as a sound insulator.
Some characteristics and purpose of insulation from the manufacturer "Rokvul"
Choosing insulation Rockwool, you will need to understand its varieties. Among others, we should highlight LITE BATTS SCANDIC. This material is the best product in its class. It has a new level of quality and is used for private housing.
The price per square meter is the limit from 81.59 to 244.72 rubles. The cost varies depending on the size of the plates. In the first case, the parameters of the product are 800 x 600 x 50 mm, while in the second they are equal to 1200 x 600 x 150 mm. Basalt insulation is a light hydrophobized slabs of stone wool based on basalt rocks.
The product is unique, and its compression reaches 70%.Insulation Rockwool has excellent recoverability. It retains the original characteristics of all indicators. Another advantage of basalt insulation is the use of a unique technology that provides for the ability of plates to be pressed on one side, providing springiness. This makes it much easier to install the material on a metal or wooden frame.
Thermal insulation with foil-coated: purpose and application
Foil insulation can be based on different materials. The use of this insulation depends on the properties of the place where the work will be performed; matter and characteristics of the material itself. When laying such a layer on the floor, it is possible to increase the heat transfer from the radiators, to insulate the air ducts and pipelines. Excellent effect can be achieved if you install foil insulation on the entrance doors, balconies, verandas and in the hallway. Before installing this material, prepare small nails, a nail puller, a hammer and a construction stapler. Among other things, you will need more and foil construction tape. The foil should be inside.It is a reflector and will return heat radiation inside. Sometimes the insulation is placed on the other side, but this effect is no longer possible.
Appointment of insulation brand "Izover"
Insulation "Izover" is a material of mineral wool. It is sold in slabs and rolls, it is also manufactured on the basis of high quality stone fiber. Thermal insulation is made from natural materials, including:
With the help of insulation "Izover" you can achieve excellent heat and sound insulation of buildings. This solution is used to insulate the facades of houses, roofs and walls, and also acts as an excellent thermal insulation for the floor. Warming coiled insulation allows to obtain a low thermal conductivity of the surface. The material has a special fiber structure, which provides excellent acoustic properties and reduces noise.
Thermal insulation for pipes
For pipes today uses a lot of materials, among which should be distinguished foamed polyethylene. This solution is highly resistant to aggressive media and impressive strength. This insulation is produced for pipes in the form of tubes of different diameters.The pores have a closed structure, which guarantees the absence of absorption of moisture from the external environment.
Some brands of such heaters are foiled and are used to minimize heat loss. Insulation for pipes can also be represented by foamed polyurethane foam. This insulation is today one of the most common and is installed by spraying on the surface, which ensures a tight fit to the surface. Polyurethane foam withstands extremely high and low temperatures, while the properties are not reduced, and each cell remains sealed.
Thermal insulation from the manufacturer "Technonikol"
Insulation "Technonicol" is a material based on the rocks of the gabbro-basalt group. By purchasing this insulation, you buy stone wool, which is a non-combustible material, and the melting of fibers occurs only at a temperature of 1000 ° C and above. This insulation provides sound-absorbing and acoustic properties of surfaces. Mineral insulation include:
- glass wool;
- stone wool;
This insulation "TechnoNIKOL" in different types of different raw materials used in the production process.
The use of siding with insulation
Siding with a layer of insulation is installed in several stages. On the ground, it is necessary to reinforce the angular and lateral type strips to the surface. Before starting this work, it is necessary to carry out the marking, to draw the lines that you will be guided by during the work process. After that, you can begin to install siding with insulation.
Use for this you need screws, which will be located around the perimeter of the window and door openings. As for the latter, they are framed with slats so that the installation of the cladding is not accompanied by difficulties. After you can proceed to the fastening of the panels. You need to start from the bottom corner of the bearing wall.
Thermal insulation under plaster
Under the plaster, you can use a variety of different materials for thermal insulation of walls. Mineral wool, which has been popular for many years, is suitable for this. Polystyrene also acts as a heater for plaster walls. However, it has several limitations on use. This is expressed in low resistance to high temperatures. This applies even to the most modern types of foam, which are composed of special flame retardants.
On the modern market of building materials for thermal insulation of various surfaces there is a huge variety of solutions. Before you make a choice, you must evaluate several factors, among other and most important ones, you need to highlight the technical characteristics. The purpose and features of the operation of thermal insulation depend on them. If you do not comply with the requirements that apply to the external environment during the installation of insulation, you can face with its low efficiency and the need to replace the insulating layer.