The first state in which the fascist regime was established was Italy. This system was born here. In this country the history of fascism began.
The state was in the conditions of specificpolitical, social and economic difficulties. Emerged in the 19th century, these problems were exacerbated by the First World War. As one of the victorious countries, Italy was more exhausted by the war than the other powers. The crisis was in industry, financial system, agriculture. In no country in the world has there been such poverty and unemployment.
Italian fascism began to blossom at the end of the war. The first organizations with the corresponding management system began to be formed.
Despite some setbacks, Italy was oneof the victors in the war. Following the battle, the country received Istria from Trieste and South Tyrol. The government of the country had to give in favor of Yugoslavia Dalmatian coast, and the city of Risk (Fiume) was declared free. It should be noted that the public was dissatisfied with such behavior of the allied countries and the alleged instability of the Italian government.
Against the backdrop of nationalistic sentiments, leadershipthe country did not dare interfere in the occupation of Fiume by the Italian troops led by Gabriele D "Annunzio (the soldiers did not obey the order to withdraw) .For sixteen months, the" blackshirt "soldiers hosted the city. Since that time, Italian fascism with all its elements began to develop actively .
Political style, founded by D "Annunzio, tookfor the example of Mussolini. His movement united the latter in the National Fascist Party. In a relatively short period Mussolini managed to form a mass movement, which by 1921 numbered about two hundred thousand participants ("blackshirts").
Italian fascism had a paramilitary outsidea kind that attracted not only the former socialists together with the nationalists, but also the youth and the participants in the war. All these people saw in the new movement the only force that could radically solve not only the national, but also the personal problems of the population.
The political tactics developed by Italian fascism, in essence, contributed to the transition of the world war into a civil confrontation.
The leadership of the country not only did not intervene in thethe actions of the new party, but, on the contrary, encouraged them in every possible way. The regime of fascism received the patronage of a powerful confederation of landowner unions and industrialists.
In 1921, October 27, on the orders of Mussolini began a campaign against Rome. Although the "blackshirts" were not actually armed, the police and the country's leadership again decided not to interfere in the situation.
Instead of preventing the putsch, the King of Italy appointed Mussolini the Prime Minister of the country.
In 1924, on April 5, in the parliamentary electionsthe Fascist Party of Italy, along with the liberals (in the general list), received almost two-thirds of all seats. On the one hand, the power of Mussolini was based on the position of the head in the government entrusted to him by the king, on the other hand, on a single party subordinate to him as the leader.
Since October 1925, the establishment of fascistorganizations in Italy. These corporations put an end to the free trade union movement. Twenty-two organizations were established in the country (in accordance with the branches of industry).
After the establishment of the "corporate system," Mussolini was able to easily get rid of the remnants of parliament. After this, a chamber of fascist corporations and organizations was formed.
Since November, the "higher laws of fascism" have been published. These acts greatly expanded the power of Mussolini by extending the powers of the government completely subordinated to the new system.
By the beginning of 1928 a new law onelections. In accordance with it, the "Great Council of Fascists" compiled one list of candidates. Voters could reject or accept it as a whole. As a result, in Italy the entire parliamentary system was replaced by a dictatorship.