Modern classification. Hypertensive disease and its forms

Under hypertensive disease, the primaryarterial hypertension of unknown origin. That is, it is an independent form, in which increased pressure occurs for no apparent reason and is not associated with other pathologies. It is necessary to distinguish hypertensive disease from secondary hypertension, in which high blood pressure is a symptom of a disease of cardiovascular, renal, neurological, endocrine and others.

Since the beginning of the 20th century, more than oneclassification. Hypertensive disease was divided into species according to one or more criteria. This distinction is necessary, since for successful treatment it is important to correctly determine the form of the disease.

classification of hypertensionWhat classification is used today? Hypertensive illness can be systematized according to the appearance of the patient, the causes of appearance, the level of pressure increase, the nature of the course, the degree of organ damage, options for increasing blood pressure. Classification in appearance is not used today, the rest are still actively used in medical practice.

Today, doctors all over the world often share hypertension in terms of blood pressure and the degree of damage to organs in which blood supply has been impaired due to ailment.

The classification of hypertension by the pressure level in mm Hg is of practical importance in medicine. st .:

  • the optimal value is 120/80;

  • normal - 120 / 80-129 / 84;

  • normal borderline - 130 / 85-139 / 89;

  • I degree AG - 140 / 90-159 / 99;

  • II degree of AH - 160 / 100-179 / 109;

  • III degree of AH - more than 180/110.

Hypertonic disease. Classification by pressure level

There are three degrees of the disease, while their names are characterized not by the state of the patient, but exclusively by the level of pressure:

  • I degree - soft: blood pressure can be in the range of 140-159 / 90-99;

  • II degree - moderate: blood pressure is 160-179 / 100-109;

  • III degree - severe: blood pressure more than 180/110.

Classification of essential hypertension by stages

In this case, the disease is divided according to the degree of organ damage and the following stages are distinguished:

  1. The first. The increase in blood pressure is slight and unstable, usually happens during exercise. There are no changes in organs. There are no complaints, the pressure is normal after rest without taking medications.

  2. The second. There is a more persistent increase in blood pressure, in connection with which there are changes in the organs, but their functions are not violated.classification of essential hypertension by stagesMost often there is an increase in the leftventricle. In addition, there may be changes in the kidneys, the vessels of the brain, the retina of the eye. Need constant monitoring of the pressure and taking appropriate medications.

  3. The third stage. The pressure stably keeps at a high level. The organs are not only changed, but their work is disrupted. As a rule, kidney and heart failure develop, hemorrhages and degenerative changes of the fundus, atrophy and edema of the optic nerve appear. The medication is indicated.

Other Classifications

The following classification. Hypertensive disease can have four options for increasing blood pressure:

  • systolic - raised upper, lower - no more than 90 mm Hg. p.

  • diastolic - only the lower one is raised, the upper one is less than 140 mm Hg. p.

    hypertensive disease classification
  • systolodiastolic;
  • labile hypertension - the pressure drops without the use of antihypertensive drugs.

There is one more classification. Hypertensive disease can be divided by the nature of the course. There are two forms of the disease: benign and malignant.

In the first case, hypertension develops slowly, passes through three stages according to the degree of pressure increase and the manifestation of changes in the internal organs due to high blood pressure.

Malignant form is infrequent. It usually develops in young and children, it has a stable high blood pressure, severe organ damage. It is characterized by such symptoms as headaches, cramps, vomiting, transient blindness, coma.

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