Mushroom cultivation at home
Champignons have long won first place in the preparation of mushroom dishes. They are simple in cooking and have a pleasant sweetish taste. We are used to buying in supermarkets, but champignons are easy to grow at home, and if you like, you can create your own business.
Have you decided to grow champignons yourself? First of all, determine the place for production, because the technology directly depends on it, for example: at the cottage, in the basement of a private house, in a rented room. Then study the technology of planting and care, possible diseases, temperature conditions and others.
Proper champignon growing technology
Grain or compost mycelium is required for the landing. With properly planted mycelium, correctly selected temperature and humidity, the harvest will turn out in the first year.
Grain mycelium in the soil
When planting grain mycelium, in the ground make grooves with a depth of no more than 0.3 m and a width of about 0.5-0.6 m. In this state, leave the dug holes for 2-3 days to normalize the temperature.Then proceed with the laying of the mycelium. It is better to position the body of the fungus in a staggered manner at a distance of at least 20 cm.
If the choice fell on the compost, the technology is somewhat different. At the bottom of the mini-trenches lay the drainage, and on top - compressed compost, in which you place the mycelium and cover it with the same. If everything is done correctly and the mycelium was of high quality, after a week you will see new threads-branches of the mycelium.
3 weeks after the successful landing, lay a layer of wet soil on top of the beds. It is important to ensure that the layer thickness does not exceed 25-30 cm, otherwise the formation of champignon bodies can be blocked. The composition of the soil should contain peat, chalk and turf soil, which will provide the necessary acidity for development.
Provide room ventilation and adequate humidity. If we talk about specific numbers, then to activate the spores the optimum temperature is 24-28 ° C, and for the growth of fungi - 16-18 ° C.
To comply with the temperature regime, install temporary shelters or cover the soil with a layer of straw. Make sure that no white bloom appears on the ground - this is the first sign of overdrying of the soil.Moisten the soil, and remove the straw or shelter for a while.
The first crop of champignons will receive a month and a half after planting. Mushrooms collect immediately after ripening, like oyster mushrooms. The yield period is 3-4 days. Subsequent fruiting should be expected at intervals of 3-4 months. The first harvests will be the richest.
Features of growing in the basement
The type of cultivation in the basement is a priori successful, because in the basement the optimal conditions for ripening have already been created - the necessary temperature and lighting. The main thing is to monitor the humidity of the air during the incubation period, which should not fall below 75%. But here the problem is solvable - use an ordinary humidifier. To activate the dispute, make the temperature higher, and for the growth of fungi, lower it. Additional structures to create there is no need.
How to grow in the country
This method is more complicated compared to growing in the basement. It is important to competently approach the selection of a site for planting - look for a shady and damp place. Build a shed or shaded greenhouse. The technology of planting mycelium is standard.Maintain the correct temperature (mushrooms do not tolerate heat), the necessary humidity, control the mode of ventilation.
Pay attention to the choice of substrate, in which there should be a minimum of carbon dioxide and a maximum of nutrients. The best option is forest land.
Champignons as a business - where to start?
Due to the relative simplicity and high fruitfulness, champignons are profitable to grow on an industrial scale. Consider a step by step plan for creating a business.
- Decide on the yield, calculate the area of the room for cultivation (for example, to obtain 3 tons of crop, you will need a room of 100 square meters).
- Based on the long-term event and financial opportunities, you can invest in the construction of a new structure, rent or buy a finished room. At the initial stage more profitable rent.
- The next task is to find a reliable supplier of mycelium. It is not worth saving. Choose proven suppliers with extensive experience.
- Commercially champignons are most often grown in wooden boxes or sacks.This method allows you to efficiently use the floor space.
- An important item of expenditure is hired labor, as well as competent training of workers in the technology of champignon care. The number of workers depends on the scale of cultivation and financial opportunities.
Where to get mycelium for landing?
The quality of the mycelium determines the volume of the crop. There are many offers from different suppliers on the Internet. Do not pursue low prices, it threatens with problems with the future harvest.
The ideal option is to choose a reliable and well-known supplier who is advised by real buyers in the forums on mushroom production.
Mycelium can also be grown independently at home, but for the first landing it is desirable to postpone the experiments and buy a proven product.
For the first landing, choose a compost type of mycelium - less picky and more resistant to violations of growing conditions. The yield with compost mycelium is less rich, however, it is easier to acquire the first and necessary skills with it.
Before planting mycelium carefully examine the substrate.It should be slightly springy, not crumbly and not too hard.
To increase the yield, horse manure is added to the substrate. If not, it can be replaced by bird or cow, but this may adversely affect the volume of the crop.