New tank "Oplot". Tank "Oplot": technical characteristics
Since Soviet times, Ukraine had incredible reserves of tanks. Unlike many tank divisions stationed in the European part of the USSR, the local units were equipped with extremely promising, newest models. After the collapse of the Soviet Union, many T-80, T-80UD and even T-72 tanks remained at that time, not to mention any small things like the T-64.
Time passed, and the state budget was melting. It was decided to intensify sales of heavy armored vehicles to foreign buyers, but the problem was that the markets were already saturated with Ukrainian T-72 and T-80, which were sold for the price of scrap metal in the first years after the collapse of the USSR. It was required to interest buyers with something fundamentally new. So there was a "Stronghold." The tank is a modernization of the T-80UD.
As in the case of other promising Ukrainian armored vehicles, it is the fruit of the design activity of the Kharkov Design Bureau named after A.A. Morozov.This is the most famous Ukrainian developer of heavy armored vehicles, “on the bill” of which is also a Ukrainian tank “Oplot”, which is quite a decent machine.
General layout information
There are no special differences from other Ukrainian and Russian tanks in this regard. The driver is located in the front, under the fighting compartment assigned the center of the machine, and the engine compartment is located in the stern. The driver's hatch leans back and opens to the side when opened.
Behind the driver there is a landing hatch. The gunner and the commander also have separate hatches for boarding and disembarking the tank (Oplot and Bulat tanks are distinguished by improved ergonomics). By this they compare favorably with those models on the basis of which they were created.
Differences from its predecessor
Despite the fact that the Oplot is a tank produced on the basis of the T-80UD, it has many features that distinguish it from its predecessor. Here is a complete list of them:
- New armor, manufactured by welding-rolled type.
- Built-in dynamic protection that significantly improves the survivability of the tank on the battlefield.
- New sights.
- Ukrainian tank "Oplot" received an engine with a power of 1200 horsepower, in contrast to the power unit for 1000 horsepower from its predecessor.
- The transition to a digital MSA.
- A set of optical-digital countermeasures.
- Additional power supplies.
- The system, taking into account the degree of bending of the trunk.
- Modern navigation systems.
- New, wide side screens, greatly increasing the degree of protection of the tank from the main anti-tank weapons that are used today.
An electric drive tower was used, and hydraulic - for the gun. Rotate the tower 180 degrees in just five seconds. In case of combat damage, manual drives for rotating the turret and turning the gun are provided. Since the first model of the Oplot tank was presented to the public in 1999, some of the new technical solutions were introduced relatively recently, some elements may not be available on older machines.
Ammunition used on the tank
Shells - separate loading, a total of 40 pieces. Immediately 28 of them are in the installation of the automatic loader. Another seven shells are located to the right of the driver’s workplace, and another five spare shots are in a special compartment located in the aft compartment of the tower.Ammunition may include sub-caliber armor-piercing shells, high-explosive and cumulative. In addition, laser-guided missiles are allowed. So the "Stronghold" - the best tank in terms of technical equipment in relation to its relatively low cost.
The peculiarity of the tank is precisely the presence of the latter type of ammunition, which makes it possible to hit the target with optical laser guidance at distances up to five kilometers, while being out of reach for return fire. The advantage of the missiles is that they are stored in the automatic loader just like ordinary projectiles.
Shooting them can be performed from a moving tank at a moving target. As practical tests have shown, the T-84 Oplot tank is often no worse than the most modern foreign models in terms of these indicators. The head part of the missiles has characteristics that allow it to confidently hit even targets covered with modern dynamic protection, as well as penetrate multi-layered ceramic armor, which is installed on many current MBTs.
Prospects for rocket weapons
Although rocket weapons are essentially designed to deal with the enemy’s armored vehicles, the area of their use is much wider. So what else can it be used by the crew of the Oplot tank? A tank with missiles can independently fight off an attack from the air, and this is extremely important!
It has long been known that combat helicopters armed with air-to-surface ammunition are extremely dangerous for tanks, since they simply cannot reach the tough and fast enemy. If the armored vehicle is armed with missiles with “smart” guidance, then it is no longer possible to call it “an easy target”. This was the decisive argument in favor of the inclusion in the ammunition of the tank of this weapon, despite its high cost.
Anti-tank defense systems
What is protected "stronghold"? The tank has a combined protection system on board. It includes both active and passive armor, as well as a number of other tools that dramatically increase the survival rate of a vehicle on the battlefield, protecting it from the action of the main modern anti-tank weapons. It is important to note that due to the competent separation of the defense systems across the hull of the tank, it is also quite suitable for the conditions of intense urban combat, which is extremely important in modern conditions.Thus, the tanks "Oplot" in service with Ukraine represent a serious force.
A passive armor system is very important for protection. Based on this, the Ukrainian media call this car just as “the best tank in the world.” "Oplot" is evidence that even the modern Ukrainian industry is able to produce excellent samples of armored vehicles.
On the front of the tank, the Knife system is mounted, which, unlike domestic counterparts, provides protection not only against cumulative, but also from sabot armor-piercing shells.
In general, the tank "Oplot", the characteristics of which we are now considering, is theoretically one of the most protected vehicles in its class. "Theoretically," because there is no data on its combat use. In any case, these cars do not seem to be involved in the well-known events in the South-East of Ukraine.
Tank side protection
In addition to the front of the hull and the turret, the dynamic protection modules are also mounted on the mounted screens along the sides of the tank, which again sharply increases the chances of survival of the latter in battle. So far, there is no adequate information about the actual combat use of the "Knife", but the factory tests showed its impressive characteristics.
The advantage of this type of dynamic protection is that it is modular: any part can be repaired or replaced with an upgraded counterpart at any time, and the tank at this time will not have to be driven off to the manufacturing plant.
The only weak point in this case is the upper part of the tower, since the most modern anti-tank weapons hit it there. In order to prevent subunits caused by such attacks, additional active protection units can be mounted on these sites.
Fire control system, sights
Like all modern MBTs, the Oplot tank, the characteristics of which are discussed in the article, has a quality SLA on board that allows a high probability of hitting the target with the first shot to fire both at fixed and moving objects.The 1G46M is used as a gunner's sight, there is a Buran-Katrin-E sight with a thermal imager, the PNK-5 commander's observation-sighting system, as well as an anti-aircraft sight PZU-7. For remote control of anti-aircraft systems, the 1EC29M complex is used.
In addition, the Ukrainian tank T-84U "Oplot" is equipped with a ballistic computer LIO-V, as well as a stabilizer gun 2E42M. In total, all these devices form an extremely efficient system that enables effective destruction of targets in all weather and climatic conditions, as well as at any time of the day.
Characteristics of sighting devices
The standard gunner's day sight, 1G46M, is equipped with a sighting system stabilized in both planes. To determine the distance of the target, a laser rangefinder is used. In addition, there is a control channel for targeting smart missiles. The sight has a variable multiplicity from 2.7x to 12x. The range finder can give correct readings at distances up to 9990 meters with an accuracy of ± 10 meters. All real-time data is highlighted at the bottom of the gunner's sight.
The field of view is appropriately marked, and there are also stadiometric scales, which are necessary for firing “from base to target”. In addition, this marking may be the only reliable way of aiming in emergency conditions. In order to save the gunner's eyes from being blinded by the flash of his own shot at night, high-quality light filters are provided that reduce this probability to zero.
In general, the “Oplot” tank with its technical equipment is not much inferior to its more modern “colleagues”.
The 6TD-2 diesel engine, whose power is 1200 hp, is used as the power plant. The advantage of this model is stable and reliable operation in all climatic and weather conditions. Although the motor is formally diesel, in practice it is capable of operating normally on kerosene, gasoline, and mixtures of these fluids in any proportion (of course, with a significant reduction in service life). It is equipped with a preheating device for starting at extremely low temperatures.
It is reported that the engine can operate normally at temperatures up to +55 degrees Celsius, which was made possible thanks to numerous engineering improvements. Due to the fact that the power density is 26 hp / t, the Oplot tank (the technical characteristics of which are discussed in the article) has impressive mobility.
In the internal tanks fit up to 700 liters of fuel. Two special tanks of 400 liters each can be placed on special brackets located aft. The fuel range is 400 km. If necessary, additional barrels of fuel can be mounted on the same stern. Each of the additional tanks is connected to a common fuel system, but at the same time it can be easily thrown off at any time.
Air intake and purification system
An air inlet is necessary for a constant flow of air and the formation of a fuel-air mixture, which is necessary for the smooth operation of the engine. In addition, modern machines of this type (Oplot and T-90 tanks), thanks to the same system, can overcome reservoirs up to 1.8 meters in depth without prior preparation.
The device for cleaning the supplied air consists of two main components: centrifugal coarse filters, as well as air purifiers cassettes. The manufacturer reports that the car can travel up to thousands of kilometers in dusty or radioactive environments without the need to replace filters.
The suspension was designed to provide maximum performance when driving on any type of terrain. Torsion type. On each side - six double rubberized rollers, and the leader is located in the stern of the hull. For increased reliability, there are support rollers. Basic skating rinks have a powerful rubber band, structurally consist of two discs firmly connected to each other.
So what's good tank "Oplot"? Comparison with other examples of armored vehicles suggests that at a significantly lower price (about one and a half to two million dollars) it has similar characteristics. He is obliged by this to his ancestor, the T-84 tank, the brainchild of the Soviet tank school.