Oophoritis - what is it? Symptoms and treatment of the disease
Oophoritis is an inflammatory process of paired women. It can be one-way or two-way. Often this disease can occur with concurrent inflammation of the fallopian tubes, which is called salpingitis. Pathology passes in acute or chronic form.
Oophoritis: what is it?
So, as already noted, oophoritis is an inflammation of the ovaries. In the acute form of the pathology, severe pain in the lower abdomen can be noted along with urinary disorders, fever and abnormal secretions. For chronic oophoritis, pain syndrome and metrorrhagia, that is, menstrual failures, are typical.
A large accumulation of pus in the ovaries can lead to the appearance of pelvioperitonitis. In the future, secondary infertility may be caused due to dysfunction of the ovaries.
Causes of oophoritis
In the event that such pathogens as trichomoniasis and mycoplasmosis are the cause of oophoritis, then it is worth talking about the specific nature of inflammation.The pathogenic microflora includes pathogens such as: staphylococcus, candida, E. coli and streptococcus. All of them act as nonspecific causative agents of the described disease.
Oophoritis - what is it? What are its fundamental principles, in addition to the above? So, provoke a disease, as well as its exacerbation, the following factors:
- Supercooling of the body.
- Childbirth and menstruation.
- The use of intrauterine devices.
- Pregnancy abortion by surgery.
- Any manipulations on the genitals of a surgical or diagnostic nature.
Very often, inflammation of the ovaries is secondary, as a result of the ingress of any infection from the uterus or from the fallopian tubes. In rare situations, the pathogens of this disease are able to penetrate into the glands through the blood, as in tuberculosis.
The mechanism of pathological changes
When oophoritis occurs, the infection spreads gradually from the uterine cavity to the tubes, as a result of which only the mucous membrane is affected in the initial stages, then the damage is done to the serous and muscular layer. Against this background, the fallopian tube can lengthen, thicken, and the inflammation itself begins to lead to the formation and release of pus with the subsequent development of adhesions.
Later, the ovaries are involved in the pathological process, and under the action of pus, their tissues melt. The result of all this is the formation of adhesions between the ovary and the fallopian tube changed as a result of inflammation. For this reason, the symptoms of salpingitis and oophoritis are not distinguished. In some situations, against the background of inflammation of the ovaries, pathological changes can spread to the nearby peritoneum.
This whole pathological process is called periadnexitis. Accumulating inflammatory secretions may be purulent or transparent. The accumulation in the ovary of this dangerous secret forms pyovar. With the subsequent spread of the infectious process, it falls outside the ovaries, as a result of which pelvioperitonitis begins to develop.
Symptoms and forms of oophoritis
Oophoritis: what is it in other words and concepts? What is the typification of this disease?
Inflammation of the ovaries, as a rule, is acute, chronic or subacute. Each of these forms has its own flow characteristics. For example, for the acute form, the development of the following symptoms is typical:
- Regular and intense pain in the lower abdomen, one-sided or two-sided. It may also be felt recoil in the sacrum or lower back.
- Excessive urination with cutting and pain.
- In some situations, too abundant serous, and in addition, purulent discharge from the genital canals.
- Fever along with fever and general malaise.
- The occurrence of bleeding between menstruation.
- Sharp pain during sexual contact.
During a gynecological examination, the doctor may observe an increase in the ovaries in size. Also noted their pain. When an acute form of the disease appears, hospitalization may be required with further treatment of oophoritis in the hospital.
Relatively rarely, doctors observe a subacute form of oophoritis. This type is usually characteristic of mycosis or tuberculosis infection. It is typical of the same symptoms as in the presence of acute inflammation of the ovaries, although it has less severity. The acute type, provided that the treatment of oophoritis is carried out correctly and in time, can be completed with the patient’s complete recovery.But otherwise, the disease can acquire a chronic and prolonged course, which will be accompanied by periods of remission. So, for the periods of remission of the chronic type of oophoritis, the following symptoms are usually characteristic:
- Sensation of aching, dull pains in the lower abdomen and in the region of the groin, and also in the vagina. Such pains can significantly increase before menstruation. They are also aggravated due to hypothermia, or against the background of colds.
- The presence of regular scanty secretions.
- Disruptions in the function of the ovaries and irregular menstruation.
- The absence of pregnancy and the inability to conceive, despite the normal sex life.
- Violation of sexual functions, which are accompanied by pain during intercourse. As a result, women are reduced in sexual desire.
At the same time, an increase in the ovaries is often observed during gynecological examinations, and patients may also notice their excessive sensitivity during palpation. In addition, chronic oophoritis can be accompanied by disorders in the nervous and psychological sphere of a woman, which, as a rule, is expressed in poor sleep, irritability, rapid fatigue, impaired performance, and so on.
What is more dangerous oophoritis?
The chronic process of inflammation of the ovaries sometimes develops without the acute stage. Some diseases that are sexually transmitted, such as gonorrhea, are often asymptomatic, for this reason the inflammation caused by them has a hidden course and quickly turns into a chronic stage. Against the background of protracted processes, without obvious symptoms and treatment of oophoritis, dangerous changes appear in the area of the fallopian tubes, leading to the development of obstruction. As a result of all this, adhesions are usually formed around the ovaries, after which secondary infertility occurs.
The effect of oophoritis on pregnancy
What is it - oophoritis, when it comes to conception?
Complications that may develop after the transferred oophoritis, in any case, pose a danger, first of all, to reproductive functions. Thus, as a result of oophoritis, the following can occur:
- The appearance of pathologies in the functions of the ovaries.
- Violation of the flow of the menstrual cycle.
- Obstruction of pipes along with adhesions.
- Spontaneous miscarriages.
- The onset of ectopic pregnancy.
- Violation of sexual functions in the form of infertility.
- The occurrence of inflammatory processes in other organs of the body, such as cystitis, colitis, pyelonephritis.
In this regard, it is required to identify and adequately treat this pathological condition in time, after which the ability to perform childbearing functions can be restored.
Types of oophoritis
Oophoritis is one-sided and two-sided. Unilateral type diagnosed with the defeat of one of the ovaries. Its main causes, as a rule, are gynecological interventions along with infectious diseases of the genital organs or other systems, as well as weakening of the immune system, stress and hypothermia.
The main clinical symptoms of oophoritis are abdominal pain, which may be accompanied by high fever, which does not decrease with the use of antipyretic drugs. Also, this condition is marked by specific vaginal discharge, bleeding between menstruation and fatigue. In addition, doctors observe irritability along with pale skin and loss of interest in sexual contact.
An important feature of this disease is the fact that the inflammatory process from the right tube can go to the left and vice versa.In addition, right-sided oophoritis can often be confused with appendicitis.
If there is a bilateral nature of the disease, both ovaries are affected immediately. The reasons for the appearance of this state are absolutely no different from those observed in one-sided form. The main symptoms of bilateral oophoritis are pains in the lower abdomen and in the groin area, as well as lower back pain, which have an intense character. There are also vaginal discharge along with uterine bleeding, which are noted in the intervals between menstruation. Urination is also disturbed, insomnia occurs.
Diagnosis of the disease
Signs of oophoritis are a fairly vague picture. In the acute form, it is difficult to distinguish it from such conditions as: ectopic pregnancy, appendicitis, cyst, endometriosis, ovarian cysts, peritonitis, and so on.
Correctly determine the diagnosis of inflammation can be, if based on the data of gynecological anamnesis. This requires finding out the concomitant factors and causes of the development of the disease along with the characteristics of the sexual sphere. In addition, it is important to conduct laboratory tests, in which determine the increase in leukocyte levels in urine and blood. Also taken smears from the urethra and vagina.The following options for gynecological examinations provide equally important information:
- Determination of ovarian enlargement and tenderness.
- Determination of mobility of appendages.
- Ultrasound diagnosis of the pelvic organs.
- Implementation of bacteriological research.
- Diagnosis of polymerase chain reaction.
- Linked immunosorbent assay.
- RIF, which reveals hidden infections, as well as pathogens.
The most informative diagnostic technique for inflammation of the ovaries is laparoscopy, which allows direct examination of the uterus, as well as the ovaries and fallopian tubes. The indications for this manipulation are prolonged abdominal pain, which are chronic and have an unclear origin. Long-term infertility is also taken into account along with inflammation of the ovaries, which is not amenable to complex treatment.
Against the background of chronic bilateral oophoritis or pathologies on one side only, there may be a violation of the patency of the uterine tubes. In addition, there may be infection, adhesions, any formations in the ovaries and other processes.The severity of all these changes is dictated by the duration of chronic pathology and the frequency of relapses.
The process of treatment of inflammation of the ovaries should begin only after the final establishment of the correct diagnosis. Therapy of this disease is determined by the stage of its development, as well as the reasons that caused it and the nature of the symptoms.
Acute oophoritis is treated exclusively in the hospital. Patients are prescribed bed rest. At the beginning of treatment, cold on the lower abdomen is shown, and, in addition, medicinal and painkillers that eliminate the symptoms of inflammation. Antibacterial and fortifying medicines are also used.
In the subacute stage, physiotherapeutic procedures are added to standard treatment. It is important to note that the chronic nature of ovarian inflammation requires balneotherapy. Launched forms of oophoritis are much more difficult and longer to treat as compared with situations of timely treatment. Such forms can lead to serious complications that will require surgery.
An important issue is the rationality in the use of antibacterial drugs.Means of this category are shown in situations of relapses of a chronic type of oophoritis in the event that the intensification of inflammatory events is pronounced. In addition, antibiotics are used for exacerbations of the disease in the process of restorative treatment and physiotherapy. In the event that the treatment with these drugs and sulfonamides was not carried out in the subacute or acute form of inflammation of the ovaries, the use of such medicines is also justified.
The purpose of the treatment of chronic oophoritis is the provision of antimicrobial and, moreover, anti-inflammatory effect along with an increase in the body’s immune reactivity, anesthesia, the restoration of disturbed sexual functions of female organs, as well as any deviations of the nervous, hormonal and vascular systems.
By popular methods of eliminating inflammation of the ovaries can rightly be attributed to herbal therapy, which is used as a preventive measure or supplement.
To prevent the occurrence of oophoritis, all women should try to avoid overwork, hypothermia, stress, observing all the rules of hygiene.Proper nutrition, along with a healthy lifestyle in the aggregate with the exception of abortion and casual sex, will prevent the occurrence of ovarian inflammation and related complications.