Revenues of the federal budget. Revenues and expenditures of the federal budget
The state budget is a rather broad concept. It can be understood as a financial document of national importance, in accordance with which the government finances certain directions of development of political and social institutions, the economy. Also, the budget is, in fact, all those monetary resources that the state has at its disposal, the totality of their possible sources and expenditure items.
Building effective policies in terms of financing key institutions in terms of the development of a country’s institutions, bodies, institutions and enterprises implies, first of all, certain sources of funds in the treasury. And therefore it is particularly interesting to study the composition of the revenues of the federal budget of the Russian Federation. To what extent is the state treasury of the Russian Federation dependent on oil and gas exports? What are the revenues and expenses of the federal budget of Russia?
What is the state budget
Virtually all modern states have their own budget - a financial resource used to ensure the work of key political institutions, government agencies and institutions. The narrower meaning of the term “budget” is the official plan, within which the higher authorities, responsible for the allocation of the corresponding resource, in the Russian version this is the Ministry of Finance, allocate government expenditures relative to the estimated revenues.
Russian budget model
Depending on the form of the administrative-political structure of the country, budgets can be classified into different types. In Russia, for example, it can be federal, regional or municipal. In turn, financial flows at all these three levels together form the consolidated budget of the Russian Federation. Despite the fact that the subjects of the Russian Federation and individual municipalities have sufficiently large autonomy in the aspect of collecting and distributing finances, federal budget revenues, as is commonly believed among modern Russian economists, play a decisive role in the economic stability of the state.In addition, the current practice of fiscal policy in the Russian Federation is such that many regions and municipalities are characterized by a high degree of dependence on allocations from the center. Thus, revenues of the federal budget of the Russian Federation determine the degree of financial support for many regions.
You can also note the fact that the Russian budget at all levels is built on the same principles - in terms of the legal framework, documentation, key provisions of the logic of financial management, etc. And therefore the term in question in our country is often used without reference to the classification of certain levels - he, one way or another, is one for the whole state Moreover, the concept of "federal budget", although it is not entirely correct, is sometimes used in the context of the entire national system of government. That is, in fact, is identified with the consolidated. At least, as some experts believe, the term “consolidated budget” often evokes completely ambiguous associations in the minds of a simple Russian average person. But if he is “federal”, then the person is immediately clear what this is about.
However, we will adhere to the correct classification of the term in question. Let us study the specifics of the budget of the Russian Federation specifically at the federal level: this is particularly interesting, in particular, in connection with the known problems in the country's economy associated with the fall in oil prices.
Federal budget: tax revenues
Revenues of the federal budget of the Russian Federation are classified into several main types. First, it is tax revenue. Thus, it is formed by fees charged by the Federal Tax Service in accordance with the law, customs and other duties. Among the key sources are duties on oil exports. Revenues of the federal budget of Russia from the sale of "black gold" according to various estimates amount to about 35% of total revenues. That is, for example, if in 2014 the total amount of revenue in the framework of the main state financial document was about 13 trillion rubles, then oil revenues amounted to about 4-4.2 trillion. And this is despite the fact that until the fall, “black gold” cost about twice as much as now. Thus, the thesis that the revenues of the federal budget of Russia are highly dependent on oil, is generally true.
Another thing is that in the total volume of GDP, the share of corresponding revenue, in turn, is relatively small. The volume of exports from Russia is about 500 billion dollars. Of these, about 170 billion - the proceeds from the sale of oil. GDP - about 2 trillion. Thus, it turns out that the share of oil revenues in the country's GDP is slightly less than 10%. In addition to oil, a significant share of budget revenues comes from gas exports. According to various estimates - about $ 50 billion. This, of course, is significantly less than the corresponding figure for oil. But tangible. Thus, the oil and gas revenues of the federal budget account for about 50% of the total revenue to the state treasury at the appropriate level. Meanwhile, there are data reflecting higher rates - specific figures depend on the calculation methodology, as well as on the actual price of oil and gas in dollars.
Actually, the fact that the revenue of the budget of the Russian Federation is tied to the foreign exchange rate largely determines the difficulty in implementing the policy of financing the necessary public expenditures in the aspect of the country's development. It is easy to calculate that with the dollar rate falling by half, the income from the export of oil and gas to the Russian treasury will be exactly the same.The fact that the US currency in 2014 has risen against the ruble is usually attributed primarily to the fall in prices for "black gold". Only by devaluing the ruble, the government of the Russian Federation, thus, could at least partially compensate for the possible budget deficit. Although, according to many economists, the current rate of the Russian national currency is determined not only by oil prices, but also by a wide range of other factors.
Projections regarding the prices for "black gold" among world experts vary greatly. There are those who say that oil prices have reached the bottom and now they will start to grow. Other analysts believe that current prices, which largely determine the low ruble rate against the dollar, will continue for quite some time.
Thus, the oil and gas budget revenues are extremely important for the state treasury. They relate, as we noted above, to the tax. But there is another largest category of revenue. This non-tax revenues of the federal budget. They are formed at the expense of three main sources: proceeds from the use of property, its sales, and also as part of the income from unitary enterprises.Non-tax revenues of the federal budget occupy a relatively small share in the total revenue of the treasury. In particular, the income from property transactions in 2014 amounted to just over 400 million rubles. However, according to some experts, issues that reflect the need to increase non-tax revenues are regularly raised at government meetings.
Thus, the main source of replenishment of the treasury of the Russian Federation is the oil and gas revenues of the federal budget. And because the current decline in oil prices is extremely unpleasant from the point of view of building the optimal policy of the authorities in terms of financing public spending - social, military, infrastructure, etc. It is possible that the approved programs can be revised by the government.
The structure of federal budget revenues may also include gratuitous transfers from citizens and legal entities, international structures, foreign governments, and in some cases from regional treasury management systems based on mutual settlements. Also, if at the end of the fiscal year there is a cash balance in the budget, then it is transferred to the next period.
Federal budget: expenses
After examining how the formation of federal budget revenues is carried out, let us consider the key items of expenditures of the state treasury at the appropriate level. They make up a fairly large range. The main areas are:
- ensuring the activities of the authorities;
- international politics;
- Army financing;
- support of the defense industry;
- Scientific research;
- support of transport companies in the field of rail, air and sea transport;
- promoting the development of nuclear energy;
- financing of emergency response operations;
- space exploration;
- formation of a federal property fund;
- repayment of public debt;
- support the work of extrabudgetary funds;
There are several common grounds for classifying expenses of the federal budget of the Russian Federation. Consider them.
Classification of budget expenditures
Among the Russian experts, the classification model of budget expenditures based on their economic role and their functional purpose is quite popular. Regarding the first criterion, articles are formed that are related to the financing of production and other areas that are significant from the point of view of the development of the national economy.In turn, if we are talking about the classification of expenses by functional purpose, then they can be divided into allocations in favor of maintaining the work of the authorities, the army, research, etc.
Also, budget expenditures can be classified into capital and current. The first are those articles that provide the investment aspect of the development of the state’s economic system. It may also be the costs associated with upgrading and maintaining production assets. In turn, the current expenditures of the federal budget generally correspond to the functional ones.
The expenses of the state treasury of the Russian Federation are made on the basis of the corresponding obligations approved at the level of official legal acts. In particular, they can be adopted at the level of federal laws, decrees of the President, resolutions of the Government. For example, the appropriate type of decision is characteristic in determining the volume of subsidies and subventions in favor of the budgets of Russian regions.
Features of fiscal policy
Having studied the revenues and expenditures of the federal budget,We can explore key aspects of the relevant direction of public policy, identify the main problem nuances and determine the prospects for solving possible difficulties.
Some experts estimate the Russian budget as quite average on a global scale. For example, in terms of per capita, the state treasury provides funding for every citizen of the Russian Federation for about 2.5-3 thousand US dollars every year. For comparison: in the same United States, the index is about 5 times more. Our indicator roughly corresponds to the level of Turkey, Colombia, South Africa.
At the same time, as experts believe, in Russia is much higher than in these countries, military spending, which according to various estimates is about 15% of the country's budget. This figure, according to some sources, may increase in the coming years to 20%. Thus, if we talk about peaceful budget items, the indicators are likely to be even more modest than in the countries mentioned above.
At the same time, as some experts note, and, not least, it is recorded in the highest echelons of power,Even with relatively small budget expenditures per capita, there are still problems in the distribution of public finances in Russia. Consider the key. In particular, you can pay attention to those that the President of the Russian Federation singled out several years ago. Now many of the problems noted then, experts say, are still topical.
First of all, it is noted that the structure of federal budget revenues presupposes an excessive dependence on raw materials revenue, by world standards. Actually, we ourselves were convinced of this above. About 50%, and according to some data - even more, the income of the treasury is formed through the sale of oil and gas. Experts believe that tax revenues from the federal budget should be diversified.
Costs must be justified.
The next problem is the low quality of the study of the economic rationale for state budget expenditures. Actually, the President of the Russian Federation in one of his messages drew attention to this nuance. Therefore, even if the tax revenues of the federal budget increase or are less dependent on oil and gas, without improving the decision-making system for prioritizing expenditures by the competent authorities, experts sayIt will be difficult for the state to fulfill its obligations regarding financial support for key areas of development. Experts believe that revenues to the federal budget should be properly distributed.
Aspect of self-sufficiency of regions
Another problem noted by experts is the high dependence of many regions on allocations from the center. Many of the subjects, as a result, depend on what the dynamics of federal budget revenues will be. One of the most promising solutions to this problem, analysts say, is to develop a regional entrepreneurial initiative.
Another difficulty in the budget policy, which is noted by the researchers, is that the legislation necessary for the qualitative implementation of the policy of state financial management is not always correctly worked out. This may predetermine tangible difficulties in agreeing on the key principles of fiscal policy between the competent authorities at different levels, experts say.