Soviet motorcycles. Motorcycles of the USSR (photo)
The history of domestic motorcycle construction isan integral and bright part of the world's production of bikes. Izhevsk, Kiev, Minsk and Kovrov factories can boast of both famous victories and bitter defeats. Ultimately, the entire production of Soviet "iron horses" ended in complete oblivion.
The very first bikes (two- and three-wheeled) were deliveredto Russia in the late 19th century. It's clear that these were models of a foreign manufacturer. Domestic tales appeared with the outbreak of the First World War. Located in Moscow, the plant "Duks" together with the shops of the Riga bicycle factory produced the first light motorcycles of the USSR. Most of the details were bought from the Swiss firm Moterev. For 5 years, "Duks" produced only 500 motorcycles. Mass production did not begin. This was prevented by the war, as well as the revolution that had begun.
Soon Soviet motorcycles got a second chancefor life. This happened in the mid-1920s after the end of the war and mass upheavals. Moscow engineers led by P. Lvov tried to revive the domestic motor industry. The model called "Soyuz" was excellent, but it did not go into mass production.
Period of serial assembly
In 1928 the Izhevsk factory was establishedthe design bureau, all the forces of which were directed to the motor industry. The head of the bureau was the engineer Mozharov. He and his colleagues designed and tested 5 motorcycles "IZH". On each of them stood a four-stroke two-cylinder engine with a working volume of 1200 cubic centimeters. After such a successful project, the enterprise was reorganized into the Izhevsk Motorcycle Plant. He quickly became the industry leader.
Soviet motorcycles, photos of which can be seen inarticle, were created not massively. Nevertheless, for that time, this was a real progress in the production of bikes. Especially the creation of the motorcycle "L-300".
Originally it was designed by specialistsIzhevsk plant, but mass production was established at the Leningrad plant "Red October". The bike "L-300" was produced from 1931 to 1938 and was considered the most affordable model for citizens. Of course, he was far from perfect, but this did not prevent him from competing competently with imported motorcycles in various crosses. Racers on the "L-300" won quite often.
The motorcycle was a two-stroke single-cylinderengine capacity of 300 cubic centimeters. But at the expense of only 6 horsepower it was possible to accelerate only to 75 kilometers per hour. Roller chains that carry out the motor transmission were of poor quality and were constantly stretched or even torn. Transfers were switched manually. The consumption of gasoline reached almost 5 liters.
Soon the production was moved back to Izhevsk, where the L-300 model began to come out under the new name "IZH-7".
Soviet motorcycles after World War II
After the victory of our troops production of bikeshas passed to a new stage of development. It was then that the mass production of these "iron horses" began. In addition, spare parts for Soviet motorcycles were actively produced. The same factories that did this before the war were engaged in the production. The leadership of our country decided to adopt the experience of the Wehrmacht, who uses bikes in military units. The effectiveness of this decision was proved by the experience of military operations.
During the occupation in Germany was seizedjust a few large motor-works. Among them was "DKW", located in Tsshopau. He really was considered one of the largest in the world. All technical documentation and equipment was sent to the USSR on absolutely legal grounds. This was reparations for the winner of the overthrown Third Reich.
Mass production of Soviet motorcycles wasit is not accidental. Thus, the government has attached specialists of various defense enterprises to work, subject to disbandment after the end of the war.
The centers of post-war creation of domesticIzhmash weapons factories and the Kovrov plant became the bikes. The first made a copy of the German motorcycle "DKW NZ 350" and named it "IZH-350". Kovrov also established a serial production of a copy of the German "DKW RT 125".
Several decades after the end of the warare considered the "golden age" of the domestic motor industry. In the 50s of the 20th century, factories were actively punching motor scooters and mopeds. By the pace of modernization, domestic manufacturers have far surpassed their foreign rivals.
Last decades of motorcycle industry
The period from 1970 to 1990 was the most successful,and the most tragic time in the history of the domestic motor industry. At that time, invented the most reliable Soviet model IZH Planet-4, the first water-cooled motorcycle IZH-Jupiter-5, the best bike for tuning Dnepr MT-11 and many others. Also, many could live to see the chopper style ("IZH Junker").
Soviet motorcycles began to do just for people. At the same time, not only functional characteristics were taken into account, but also citizens' wishes about the appearance of the model. Well, the most striking event in the world of the domestic moto industry was the appearance of such a bike as ...
The legendary "Java"
Of course, this brand can not be considered 100%category "Soviet motorcycles". They were produced in Czechoslovakia. But the main buyer was the Soviet Union. The most famous was the model "Java 350 638", which was sung by the soloist of the group "Gaza Strip". By the way, the second most popular was the Soviet motorcycle "Minsk".
On the bikes of the brand "Java" rolled all the Sovietrockers 80-90-ies. The model "Java 350 638" was a two-cylinder engine with a volume of 343 cubic centimeters and a capacity of 26 horsepower. This allowed to disperse the bike to 120 kilometers per hour. Given this fact, as well as the low age of owners, it is easy to guess about the high number of accidents. People called the owners of "Java" suicide bombers and were very skeptical about the bikes of this brand.
Motorcycles of the USSR ceased to be produced with the collapseSoviet Union and the violation of economic ties. A certain role in this was played by hyperinflation and widespread impoverishment of the population. But, despite this, people who lived in that period, remember with warmth the domestic tales. And some patriots are still chasing Russian roads on restored Soviet motorcycles.