The human factor in management
The human factor in management is the reasons for the violation in the work, which are caused by the discrepancy between the psychophysiological state and the qualifications of the personnel to the established requirements.
The human factor in quality management, the classification of personnel errorsanderror analysis
In the process of analyzing human operator errorstechnological systems, four types of erroneous actions are identified: missing the necessary action, disrupting the order (permutation) of actions, automatic repetition of the action, which, when initially performed, did not lead to the required result, and the execution of a new action not provided by the established algorithm.
Depending on the mode of execution of work, errors can occur at the level of skills, at the level of rules and at the level of knowledge.
The human factor or mistakes that are characteristic of working in the skills mode (inattention)
Error mode during work execution at the levelskills is inattention. Errors in the skills mode are, basically, allowed during the execution of actions, including erroneous actions and lack of attention or concentration.
The human factor or the errors typical for working in the mode of rules
Since the execution of events in the rules moderequires interpretation with the use of the formula "if - then", a common mistake is an incorrect interpretation. A person may not fully understand or misidentify the state of equipment or an object that requires a specific response.
The human factor or mistakes that are typical for work in the knowledge regime
Activities implemented in the knowledge regime requireapplication of diagnostics and problem solving. A person needs considerable efforts to process information, when it is necessary to assess the situation, starting with the root causes. It is not surprising that a person can not work well in conditions of severe stress, in unfamiliar situations, where it is necessary to act actively in the absence of rules, programs and procedures by which such situations should be resolved.
Decision making will be erroneous if the resolution of the problem is based on inaccurate information.
The human factor, the classification of the causes of personnel errors
Planning errors (errors)
Errors can be made at the planning stageor during the implementation of this plan. Planning errors lead to errors: a person either follows an inadequate procedure when solving a standard problem, or plans an improper procedure for resolving a new situation.
Errors can be committed in two ways, namely: by applying a rule that is inappropriate to the given situation, and by the correct application of a rule having shortcomings.
Wrong application of correct rules
Such a case usually takes place if the operatoris faced with a situation where a number of its features are similar to the circumstances for which this rule was intended, but with some serious differences. If the operator does not recognize important differences, it can apply an improper rule.
Applying imperfect rules
This happens when using the procedure,which in the past gave positive results, but contains unrecognized shortcomings. If such a decision is applied in the circumstances under which it was first tested, then it can become part of the standard approach of this individual to solve this type of problem.
Errors of performance (misses and omissions)
As a rule, the actions of an experienced andQualified personnel are well-trained and skillful. The work is carried out, basically, in an automatic manner, with the exception of periodic inspections of the progress of the process. But, unfortunately, there are blunders and omissions through the fault of the staff. A miss is an action that is not done as planned, and therefore a slip will always be visible. An omission is a failure of memory, and it will not necessarily be obvious to all others, except for the person who caused it.
Errors and violations
Errors are considered an ordinary phenomenon in the activitystaff and radically different from violations. These two factors can lead to the failure of the whole system or create a dangerous situation. The difference between them is only intent. Violations are a deliberate act, and mistakes are made inadvertently.
The human factor and corrective measures
Unintentional errors: this type of error can be prevented, thanksimprove training, procedures or management intervention (for example, strengthen monitoring, review assignments, clarify misunderstandings, review unclear sections in procedures, and encourage indifferent attitude of employees when performing a task).
Intentional violations: this type of errors can be prevented by developing the desired behavior and introducing a high safety culture.
Knowledge-based errors: such types of errors can be prevented by developingunderstanding the need to stop work, involve other people, ask for help / counseling, if the employee does not know how to act in unfamiliar surroundings.
The development of staff knowledge is an additional factor affecting the quality and effectiveness of management.