Types of reforms - progressive and regressive: examples
Today almost every person dailyis confronted with the notion of "reform". This has become a familiar word from the mouths of political figures, radio and television presenters, and also appears in books, the media and other sources. What does this concept mean and what are its types?
The essence of the concept
The word "reform" comes from the Latin"Reformare", which means "transform". This term denotes the change or transformation of any social process or object, the sphere of social life. Depending on the nature of the impact on historical development.
In view of the areas covered bychanges, share different types of reforms. In general, this phenomenon in any form and manifestation is a necessary process of development of the society and the state, even if its consequences are negative. It should also be noted that reform is, as a rule, a process that takes place within a certain country, its political, social or economic structure.
Mark on history
In terms of their influence on the course of history and development of the country, the following types of reforms are distinguished:
- Progressive - these changes entailimprovement, improvement of any sphere of life or the whole system. For example, the abolition of serfdom entailed a significant improvement in the lives of the broad masses of the population. Progressive reforms have a positive impact on the development of the economy, the standard of living or social security, as well as on other indicators, depending on the scope of their implementation.
- Regressive - transformations that involvea deterioration in the work of systems and structures, a lowering of the standard of living or other negative consequences in society. For example, the introduction of a high tax rate may lead to a reduction in production, the transition of the economy into the so-called "shadow activity", deterioration in the living standards of the population.
Regressive reforms can develop into people'sriots, riots, strikes. But, despite all their negative consequences, such measures are sometimes forced and subsequently give a positive result. For example, increasing fees or taxes to enhance social protection of the population will initially provoke a lot of popular outrage, but when the system is fully operational and the people feel the positive aspects of the transformations, the unrest will cease, and the updates will positively affect the standard of living of citizens.
Types of reforms in the spheres of their application are very extensive. Political are aimed at changes in a particular field. For example, the transformation of the electoral system or the governance structure of the country. Economic leads to changes in the economic activities of the country or foreign economic relations. Social is conducted with the aim of making changes in the life of the broad masses of the people.
These are generalized concepts that can include many more specific transformations. Here are a few examples:
- Constitutional reform is the introduction of changes to the country's most important document, providing for changes in the structure of power or the basic principles of its activities. Refers to the political sphere.
- Agrarian reform - transformation intoagricultural activities of the country. It can be a state support of this sector of the economy or vice versa, tightening of requirements and rules. Refers to the economic sphere.
- Educational reform - changes in the systemlearning. May concern both the highest management structures of the system (the principles of the Ministry of Education), and specific areas (children's preschools, schools, universities, colleges, etc.). Refers to the social sphere.
A vivid example from the domestic history
Khrushchev's economic reforms carried out inThe 50-60s of the last century had a huge impact on the further development of the country as a whole and its individual regions. The most important innovation was the division of the whole territory into economic administrative regions with their local government bodies, which had rather wide powers.
Also important changes can be attributed tocrushing the personality cult of Stalin, which gave impetus to a new look at his country and the world as a whole, and also aroused considerable interest of the world community.
But this was only the beginning of the changes, behind whichfollowed by others no less significant. For example, the agrarian reform was aimed at developing new lands and territories, processing them and adapting them to the needs of agriculture. These actions have yielded their important results: increased yields, development of industries adjacent to the agrarian complex, etc.
Khrushchev's economic reforms covered anddevelopment of scientific potential, and expansion of production capacities of the country and much, much more. They left a very significant trace and substantially raised the level of citizens' lives, although they had not only positive consequences.
Kinds of social reforms are estimated in tens, and examples of their carrying out too huge quantity. Some of the most striking changes in recent history are those that were conducted in Georgia.
In a fairly short period of time,reduced the state apparatus, simplified the registration and business procedures, completely rebuilt the system of social security and health. As a result of these reforms, Georgia gave excellent indicators on fighting corruption, showed the growth of the housekeeper and a significant improvement in the living standards of the population.
To improve the system, stabilize the course orIn transition periods during the implementation of other changes, the state often uses such an event as the implementation of monetary reform. With the help of this tool, it is possible to control inflation and overcome the negative consequences of the economic downturn.
The most understandable and familiar to the broad massesexamples of monetary reform are the denomination (consolidation of monetary units without changing their name), nullification (complete "system reset" - the introduction of a new currency unit in place of the old one) and devaluation (depreciation of the domestic currency relative to the monetary units of other countries).
To summarize, it is worth noting an important point thatalmost all types of reforms, if their consequences have a negative impact on people's lives, inevitably lead to a more resolute and rapid implementation of change. This phenomenon is called a revolution. Since such changes are not initiated by the state but by the people, and often do not have clear goals, but are merely the result of a protest, their consequences can be unpredictable.