Typology of the state by A. Toynbee and K. Marx

The typology of the state is a certain scientific classification of states according to their properties, which characterize the general laws of social development, political and legal structure and functioning.

Marxist typology of state and law

Its founders - K. Marx, F. Engels, later V. Lenin - saw the historicalstate typologythe process as a continuous confrontation of social classes, and society itself - as a result of the development of productive forces and the distribution of material goods. Their typology of the state, accordingly, was based on the same criteria of production development and the balance of class forces in the country. The following types (or formations) were distinguished:

  • Slaveholding state, the basis of the whole economic system which were slaves. We are talking about ancient Greece and Rome. Slavery was present, of course, in other countries: the East, later Europe, but it was nowhere else so decisive factor of production.

  • Feudalism, the basis of which was the vassal-senorialnaya system, land awards for service, the serfs and subsistence economy.

  • Capitalism, which arose in Europe in the new time and was characterized by the high development of commodity-money relations, the stratification of society into owners of the means of production and workers.

  • The socialist state, which seemed to its theorists the highest form of development of human society. However, in practical attempts to build a number of shortcomings.

Civilization approach to the typology of the state

civilizational approach to state typologyThe ancestor of this concept was A. Toynbee, after which a number of his followers developed it. She suggests that the main criterion in the classification of states and societies should be their cultural and spiritual factor. I mean, scientists saw human history as a combination of many different civilizations with peculiar traditions, customs, worldview, collective archetypes, and so on. In a number of his works, Toynbee first distinguished over a hundred of such civilizations, but in the end he reduced them to two dozen.Among them are Indian, Egyptian, Antique, Chinese, Arab, Far Eastern, Medieval European and so on. In its development, each civilization, according to the author, passed through three stages:

a) birth and early development;

b) apogee;

c) sunset.

Other approaches

The two concepts described are the most popular in the process of classifying states. However, there are others. For example, there is a typology of the state, which relies on economic development. This concept highlights the following types:

  • Developing State. Such a politically correct term is today calledtypology of state and lawpoor third world countries that have not even entered their stage of scientific and technological progress, and therefore their production is characterized by a primitive way of life and an overwhelming agricultural sector. Often such countries are simply raw materials appendages of more developed “partners”.

  • Industrial state. Usually characterized by a high level of industrial development, especially heavy. Until recently, this particular feature was the guarantor of the successful development of the country.However, the advanced countries of the world entered a new stage a couple of decades ago.

  • Developed (post-industrial state). Societies of such states are also called informational. The level of technological development here is so high that only a small part of the population can be employed in production. The rest is released for non-production tasks of a different nature: intellectual activities, services, etc.

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