Unstressed vowel in the root of the word: rules and exceptions
Russian is one of the richest in the world. At the same time, it is considered a structure with a complex grammatical structure. Therefore, very often the pronunciation of words does not determine their correct spelling. Examples of such a discrepancy can be given a mass: in the word “salt” the unstressed vowel in the root of the word “o” is heard and pronounced “a”. How to be in this case? How not to be mistaken in such spellings? The article will look at these issues in more detail.
Unstressed vowels in the root of the word
Practically all doubtful cases fall under this or that rule. Difficulty is often created by unstressed vowels in the root of the word. There are several ways to resolve this situation. In the simplest form, the spelling should be checked with a related or somewhat modified word. The result should be a construction in which the dubious sound is in a "strong" (shock) position.If such a word exists, then they say that the letter causing the question is a testable unstressed vowel in the root of the word. For example: cities - city; water is water. But not for all cases this method of writing verification is suitable. For example, in this way the alternating vowel in the root of the word or the spelling of the letters o-e after the sizzling are not established. For example: burn - burn, silk and gooseberries. Nevertheless, the main part of the roots in Russian words is written in accordance with the morphemic principle of Russian spelling. It says that the spelling of the constructive elements of a word is independent of their pronunciation.
How to check unstressed vowels in the root of a word?
There are simple actions, having made which, the writer will be able to check a doubtful case. To establish which letter to use, you need:
- Find the root in a word (for example, it hurts - the root is “bol”).
- Choose a related word with an emphasis on the problematic vowel (it hurts - it hurts).
- A special case - the letter "e", which is always in the "strong" (shock) position. This means that in the words of one root in a weak position we will write "e". For example: spring - spring, the stars - the star, the raid - to fly.
The definition of a vowel with stress in the root allows you to correctly write all words with the same root: spring - spring - spring, sea - sea - overseas.
When an unstressed vowel in the root of a word cannot be verified by the method indicated above, refer to the reference literature. Writing such "difficult" cases should be remembered. These words in the Russian language do not obey the general rules and therefore are called dictionary. And the knowledge of the correct spelling of one such speech element allows you to write correctly and all related constructions. For example, take the wordswagon, sofa, petroleum jelly, vinaigrette, archaeologist, president, excavator. In these cases, the test basis is not to pick up, but you can remember their spelling. What does this give us? We will know the spelling of all their cognate words and derived forms:wagon - wagon, wagon driver; sofa - sofas, sofa; petrolatum - petroleum jelly.
We found out how one unstressed vowel is checked in the root of a word. And if there are two such letters, then how to be? For example, in the wordsthresh. In such cases, you should again follow the rules. It is necessary to select related structures:thresh - hammer, thresh; voice - voice, polyphony.Thus, we can formulate for ourselves a rule called “an unstressed vowel in the root of a word, which can be checked by selecting a related speech element”. In these cases, the letter must be heard clearly, as it is under the stress. In the case of two doubtful letters, several related speech elements should be selected. In one, the stress will fall on one unstressed vowel, and in the other, respectively, on the other, as shown in the examples above.
The letters "o" and "a"
For many, the alternating unstressed vowel at the root causes difficulties. This is due to some discrepancies in the rules for those or other speech elements. For example:
- CBS - CAS, where "a" is written, if there is a suffix "a" behind the root (touch - touch).
- FALSE - LAS, where before the consonant "g" we write the letter "o", and before the consonant "g" we write "a". Example: put - lay.- CLON - CLAN, where in the unstressed position we write only "o". Example: bend over.
- TVOR - TVAR, where in the unstressed position we write "o" Example: the creator (the exception in this case - utensils).
- GOR - GAR, where "a" is in the word only in the "strong" position.The letter "o" is used in an unstressed position. Example: tan, tan.
- ZOR - ZAR. We write, on the contrary, under the stress of the letter "o". In a weak position, the letter "a" is used. Example: dawn - dawns. Exceptions here: zoryanka bird, (decided) to ripen.
- RAST - ROS, where in the position before the combination of the ST and the consonant U we write "a". In cases where the use of "c", then before it is used, "o". Example: grow up, grow. But at the same time: they grew. As exceptions should be remembered: sprout, usurer, the name of the city of Rostov, the male name Rostislav, adolescent, branch.
- RAVN - ROVN, where "a" is used in words with the meaning "equal in some parameters", and "o" in words with meaning on a flat surface. Example: level, equation.
- IOC - IAC, where IAC is written with the meaning of dipping into a liquid, and the IOC - letting through a liquid. Example: dip, but get wet.
Use of "e" and "and"
For alternating root vowels E-I, the rule of writing is the same for all identical roots - we write the vowel AND if there is a suffix A in the root position, in its absence we put E:
- BIR - BER: remove - clean;
- DIR - DER: tear off - rip off;
- WORLD - MEASURE: to stand still - to die;
-PYR - PER: unlock - lock;
- TIR - TER: scrub - scrub;
- YIG - ZHEG: set fire - burned;
- STEEL - STEL: spread - lay;
- SHIN - SHIN: to shine - to shine.
Spelling of the letters O-Yo after sizzling
In such cases, we write the root vowel letter E in a strong position if the vowel E appears at the root when changing a word. For example: cheap - cheaper; perch - perch. The same rule applies if, when changing a word, the stress goes to the next syllable: fringe - forehead; twine - string. In all other cases, the letter “o” should be written in the root after the sizzling.
Today in Russian there are roots with incomplete combinations -ra-, -re-, -le, -la- and others, which came from the Old Slavonic language, which correspond to full-consent root letter combinations -oro, -olo-, -here-, - her- Words containing such letter combinations do not require stress testing, they just need to be recognized. Examples: city (Russian) - hail (v. Gl.); health (Russian) - health (Art. Slav.); Youth (Rus.) - Young (Art. Slav.); gold (Russian) - gold (Art. Slav.); Bereg (rus.) - Breg (v. Slav.); tree (rus.) - tree (Art. Slav.); helmet (rus.) - worn, stunned (Art.glory ..); milk (rus.) - milky (v. gl.). Most often, such full-fledged and non-full-fledged letter combinations are immediately identifiable and, as a rule, do not cause difficulties. However, not all such correspondences can be restored in our modern Russian language. Examples: cow - krava; frost - mraz. In some words, the second version of the Old Slavic root is preserved only in other Slavic languages. An example of the Old Slavic root in Russian is preserved in the word Bologoe - the name of the locality. The original word is "good."The words of the modern Russian language, which are included in it from Old Slavonic, are often with a stylistic coloring (hail, breg, gold and others), since they were an integral part of the book, poetic speech, solemn and stilted. It was a literary sacred language of all Slavic peoples who lived in the 9-11th century, into which the Bible was translated from the ancient Greek language and the Bible, and services were held on it. There are words of the Old Slavonic era, which for a long time as a part of the Russian language have undergone changes in meaning, having lost their formerly lofty solemn colors, and have become ordinary, quite neutral in meaning, that is, they acquired a new meaning.Examples: homonymous words head - the head of the city, delegation and others, and the head - part of the publication, books, articles.