What is a borax? Bura: application. The meaning of the word "drill"
Many chemicals are used by humansin a wide variety of industries. These include the drill. It is used in industry, agriculture, engineering, medicine, everyday life, etc. What is a borax? This mineral, also called tinkal or sodium borate, has unique properties.
So what is a borax? This substance crystallizes in the monosymmetric system. Its appearance looks like the columns of augite. Translated from Persian, its name means "white". Transparent borax, the use of which is possible after careful processing of the crystals, is almost colorless or slightly greyish. It is characterized by a greasy shine and a sweetish-alkaline taste. The substance is soluble in water. For this, as a rule, 14 parts of water are taken for 1 part of the tinkal. The melting point of the mineral under consideration is 60.8 ° C. When melting with a blowtorch, the fire becomes a yellowish color, and the substance itself turns into a colorless glass.
Chemical composition of borax
Let's look at what a borax is in terms of chemistry. Formula of the substance: Na2B4O7.Most often it exists as Na2B4O7• 10H2O, which corresponds to 16% sodium, 37% acidboric and 47% water. The borax is a raw material for obtaining the compounds contained in it. The quality of the substance is controlled by GOST 8429-77. For sale sodium tetraborate (borax) comes as a white crystalline powder, the quality of which depends on various chemical elements and the degree of purification. The product is of two brands: A (the mass fraction of borax is not less than 99.5%) and B (94%). Also in it there are carbonates, sulfates, lead and arsenic.
Extraction and production of borax
This substance is most often mined in naturalconditions. What is a borax in the broadest sense of the word? This mineral is referred to the class of borates. It is a chemical precipitate of shrinking salt lakes. In Europe, this substance first appeared after it was found in Tibetan salt lakes. It is from there that its other name, tinkal, takes place. Some brown Californian shallow lakes are rich in brown, where fairly large crystals are mined. On sale you can find technical and food sodium tetraborate.
In 1748 The borax from boric acid and soda was first obtained by the French chemist Enuvil. And in our time, some enterprises are engaged in the production of artificial sodium tetraborate decahydrate. The borax can be obtained by hand by neutralizing the acid with boric sodium carbonate, with further evaporation of this mixture and filtration. This process is based on such a chemical reaction: Na2C03+ 4H3IN3= 6H2O + CO2+ Na2B407. In the tank prepare a solution of soda and heat itup to 95-100 ˚С, stirring constantly. Then boric acid is poured out there. The solution is not foamed, it is added in small portions. The ratio between the components should be such that the solution contains 16-20% Na2B407and 0.5-1.0% Na2C03. The mixture is boiled for 30 minutes, filtered and cooled toobtaining crystals. The artificial chemical mineral differs from natural rhombohedral crystals and contains less water. It can be used only for technical and medical purposes.
Bura: industrial applications
The technical application of this substance is quitevariously. The drill is a component of fluxes for welding metals, including precious metals. As part of the burden it is used in the production of glass, enamels, glazes, because it is an indispensable source of boron oxide. It is used for making antiseptics, insecticides and as a preservative during the processing of tanning raw materials. Bura is needed for the production of electrolytes in metallurgy.
Tinkal is the starting material in the manufacture ofsodium perborate, which is the main oxygen-containing whitening component in synthetic detergent powders. To improve the cleaning properties and maintain the necessary viscosity, acidity, giving the ability to form emulsions, sodium tetraborate are included in household and industrial cleaning preparations, napkins and polishes. The drill is used for the production of lubricants, brake fluids; it is indispensable in the production of antifreeze, because it, when interacting with iron, forms a complex anticorrosive compound. It is also used in the process of manufacturing various adhesives.
Application of borax in everyday life
This mineral has long been used by humans as anatural detergent. Grinded borax is used to effectively clean plumbing. Would you like your toilet bowl to shine? No question: it will be enough to pour into it 1 glass of ground mineral and leave for the night. Cleaning the plumbing in the morning with a brush, you can remove almost any difficult to remove pollution. The detergent used is an aqueous solution of borax (2 tsp for 0.5 l of liquid).
This unique substance can be used forfighting fleas and cockroaches. So, in a place of congestion of parasites periodically pour a powder of borax. You can not worry about the evaporation: in small quantities it does not harm people and animals.
To combat mold prepare a thick paste ofwater and borax. It is spread on a moldy surface and left for 12-24 hours. The dried paste is swept off with a brush, and the rests are washed off with water. This product is suitable only for relatively waterproof surfaces. In addition, the drill is used together with starch for processing collars and cuffs. It is also used for washing things made from wool (1 tsp for 1 liter of water). What for? It's very simple: to give the products softness.
Application in medicine
Sodium tetraborate is used as an antiseptic forrinsing, syringing, skin and oral cavity treatment. For this, glycerol (20%) or aqueous solutions of borax are used. Alcohol solutions do not exist, because the substance is insoluble in alcohol. Keep the drill in a tightly closed container and out of the reach of children, because in large quantities and high concentrations, it can cause harm to health.