What is a monotype? When did this technique appear?

What is a monotype? When did this technique appear?

  1. A monotype? I (from mono and Greek - the print) - the type of printed graphics. The technique of monotyping consists in applying paints by hand to an ideally smooth surface of the printing plate with subsequent printing on the machine; The print received on paper is always unique, unique. In 2000, the fractal nature of a significant part of monotypes was established and the term fractal monotyping
    For the first time, the Italian artist Giovanni Castiglione applied the monotyping technique in the 17th century. The monotype is made as follows: paint is applied to a hard surface, a sheet of paper is placed on top and pressed against the surface. On paper, an impression with unusual patterns is formed, which can not be repeated by the artist.
    In his seminal work on fractal geometry, Benoit Mandelbrot reproduces a fragment of the painting by Leonardo da Vinci, on which the artist depicted fractal structures. Can I give more examples of fine arts that contain fractals? Yes, you can.
    On some monotypes, structures typical for fractals are visible, for example, dendritic formations, which, when the paper is separated from the surface of the structure, does not appear instantaneously, but after a while (about 1 minutes). This indicates the process of self-organization in the fluid film between the surface and the paper, due to its rupture. Fractal monotypes belong to the class of stochastic fractals
    The fractal nature of the monotypy was discovered in 2000 by the chemist VM Livshits and the mathematician VV Skvortsov, independently of each other. They also proposed the term fractal monotype. In 1981 in Kohtla-Jarve (Estonia) the first exhibition of fractal monotypes by artist Lea-Tuti Livshits (1930-1999) took place. This artist called monotypy a stochathia.
    Thus, a monotype can be attributed to fractal art, and obtained not on computers (computer graphics), but physico-chemical way. Perhaps fractal film chemistry will find application not only in art
    For works performed in the technique of monotyping, the subtlety of color relations, the smoothness and softness of the outlines of forms are characteristic, which externally brings the monotyped image closer to watercolor. The technique of monotypy is known from 17 c. , but the spread was only from the end of 19 in. Among the most famous masters are the Italian Giovanni Castiglione (1616-1670), the Englishman William Blake (1757-1828), the Frenchman Edgar Degas (1834-1917), who joined the monotype with the tempera (Concert at the Cafe Ambasador).
    The appearance of a monotype in Russia is connected with the name of Elizabeth Sergeevna Kruglikova, who rediscovered this technique at the beginning of the 20th century and created her own school.
    In the early twentieth century, Russian artist Elizaveta Kruglikova, working on color etching, independently discovered a monotype. Lyrical contemplative-quiet landscapes, bouquets of roses, chamomiles, daisies are immediately recalled at the mention of the name of the artist. The Paris workshop was an attractive center where MA Dobrov, KE Kostenko, MN Voloshin, IS Efimov, N. Ya. Simonovich-Efimova, LV Yakovlev, studied and worked. P. Belkin. Famous masters were also her students-Frenchmen Moro and Dunoyer de Segonzac. After 1914, Elizaveta Kruglikova lived in Russia, continuing her pedagogical work. The enthusiasm for the etching and the enthusiasm of the master were transferred to her students - many of them began to work in color engraving and monotyping due to her leadership. The method of performing a monotype can be described simply - any coloring substance is applied to any smooth or textured hard surface, then printing is done by pressing the target surface of the impression against the matrix.
    With this kind of graphics, one impression (mono) is produced on the paper from the glass (copper sheet, etc.), on which the paints are applied. A sheet of paper is placed on top and pressed against the surface. On paper, an impression with unusual patterns is formed, which can not be repeated by the artist.
  2. You put the blot on paper, fold it in half - that's the monotype. And appeared when the first paper and blots appeared.

Related news

What is a monotype When did this technique appear What is a monotype When did this technique appear What is a monotype When did this technique appear What is a monotype When did this technique appear What is a monotype When did this technique appear What is a monotype When did this technique appear What is a monotype When did this technique appear What is a monotype When did this technique appear What is a monotype When did this technique appear What is a monotype When did this technique appear