What is a tap water valve? Device, drawing and wiring diagram
To change the flow of transported media to a complete stop, a shut-off valve is used. The water tap for water is characterized by the following properties:
- simplicity of design and operation;
- application at large pressure drops;
- small size and weight;
- possibility of installation on any section of the pipeline;
- A small shutter stroke provides convenient maintenance.
Types of valves
Shutoff and control valves are classified according to three characteristics:
- hull shape;
- type of the locking part;
- method of installation in the system.
According to the shape of the body, the valves are as follows:
- straight flow - the flow is overlapped by the valve seat in the transverse direction;
- Angular - the locking element moves towards the motion of the medium;
- Mixing - to obtain a given water temperature.
The locking element differs in structure:
- Ball - a through sphere in the straight-flow case. When the longitudinal axes of the hole and the body are combined, the flow of the flow is fully opened. Rotation in a perpendicular direction 100% overlaps the flow of liquid. The valve functions as a shut-off element only, but it is not suitable for regulation. The use of the device is associated with its high reliability, fast shutoff and compactness. It almost does not break anything, because there are very few details.
- Valve - with a lock connected to the threaded rod, screwed into the fitting nut. The unit is used to regulate the flow and to completely shut off the flow (in the lowest position).
- Needle - a conical piston with the regulation of the flow of liquid under high pressure (about 220 Bar).
- ball: brass, stainless or structural steel;
- Valves: cast iron, brass.
New materials are also used formanufacture of valves. The case made of polypropylene makes the device durable and at the same time cheap. Fluoroplastic coatings increase the resistance to corrosion and aggressive media.
The difference between a valve and a faucet
Water faucets and valves differ, althoughthey are often identified. The latter is installed between the joints of two pipes, forming a line. The valve includes a direct valve and a spout through which water flows out.
The device and operation of the valve valve
The most important working element of the valve isSaddle with a lock, manually moved by a spindle. Valve tap water, the device of which is shown below, contains threads in the body and on the rod, which has the property of braking. As a result, the shutter disk is tightly pressed against the seat, blocking the flow when the valve is closed. In the open state, the flow cross-section remains unchanged when the flow of water flows.
Normally there is no carving in the body, becauseit wears out quickly. To do this, attach it to the running nut, inside which the spindle is screwed. Then, instead of a worn out assembly, you can install another one, but the case will be preserved. All parts are interchangeable for the tap water (GOST 12.2.063-81, GOST 5761-74).
The valve is opened by turning the knob. In this case, the spindle moves forward, releasing the fluid passage. If the rotation is performed in the opposite direction, the valve closes.
The device is connected to the pipeline through the inlet and outlet nozzles. They can be distinguished among themselves by the presence of an arrow indicating the direction of the flow.
For a perpendicular change in the direction of liquid transfer with the possibility of overlapping and adjustment, a corner faucet is used (drawing below: a - through, b - angular).
The perpendicular arrangement of the inlet and outlet nozzles determines the purpose of the valve for pipelines that change direction by 90about. The principle of his work is the same as that of the checkpoint. The valve travel is carried out coaxially with the inlet branch pipe.
Scope of corner valves:
- When piping to the radiator, whenit overrides or regulates the flow of the heat-transfer agent. The tap-water valve (see photo below). Models from high-temperature polypropylene are more convenient and cheaper than brass ones when combined with plastic pipes.
- Prevention of vibration and buildup of pipelines.
- Reducing the flow velocity of the fluid without high-frequency noise.
- In fire water pipes in operation in any position.
- Simplify the installation of pipes by reducing the consumption of fittings.
The design and operation of the ball valve
The main working element of the valve is a ball withthrough hole. When the handle is positioned along the pipe, the tap is open. If it is rotated perpendicular to the pipe, it will close. The hole in the balloon can be round, square, in the form of a trapezoid or an oval. In valves of small diameter the crane is made floating, and for large-sized devices it is made on special supports. High tightness of the shutter is provided by an elastic seal. This allows you to install this type of model on gas pipelines.
The valve is a water ball running in two extreme positions with a turn of 90aboutwhen it is fully open or closed. Attempting to adjust the flow rate will result in rapid wear of the seal.
Ball valves have wider possibilities of connection of branch pipes at installation of water supply systems:
- with three or more taps in order to redirect the transported flows.
Connections with pipes are made choke, flanged and welded. The latter option allows you to permanently install a water tap into the system.
The device is made by single-lever ball or inthe form of two valve valves. The kit includes a removable shower head with attached flexible hose and spout into the bath. The mixer is made concealed, outputting only the water temperature control valves.
The classic option is a two-valveaccessory with manual temperature adjustment. Cold and hot water are mixed in a special chamber, and then they enter the shower hose or spill. The main elements of the device are two crane-boxes with interchangeable gaskets.
A single-lever device with convenient water adjustment is becoming popular. The main element of the mixer is the replaceable cartridge. If it fails, it can be easily removed and replaced with a new one.
With the integrated thermostat, the adjustment is simplified. It is pre-configured, which guarantees the outlet of water with a preset temperature. For this purpose, the thermostatic element distributing the flows is in the body. The only drawback of such models is the high price.
Small diameter valves are installed on thethread (up to 60 mm). On the pipe there is a drift, the joint is sealed with hemp or fluoroplastic film. Winding is performed in the direction of thread tightening. This creates a tight connection that can withstand high pressures.
A large-diameter pipe is connected by a flange withwasher of a ramjet or angle valve through a gasket. Tightening them together is done by bolts with nuts. The flange is connected to the pipe by means of arc welding.
Valve for water: repair
If the valve closure element is damagedreplace with a similar unexplored or new node. For this, the pipeline section is freed from the liquid, blocking it from both sides. The valve type shut-off element is then dismantled. The ball valve is removed completely with carob or adjustable keys. On the flanges, the nuts are twisted in parallel and gradually - 3-4 turns each.
First you should check the serviceabilityseals, which are replaced when worn. Leaks mostly occur due to deformation of the gaskets and when the thread is broken off when it is incorrectly installed. Then the body and the seat are inspected. In the absence of cracks, the assembly is assembled again. The body is not subject to repair if mechanical damages occur on it. Accumulation to the pipeline requires its cutting and the need for further welding operations.
In this case, it is necessary to install a new or renovated water tap. To an unprepared person to undertake difficult repairs is not necessary because of ignorance of its features.
The locking reinforcement creates an additionalresistance, therefore in places of connections clogs can be formed. It is not always necessary to remove the valves. Sometimes it is enough to simply flush the pipelines by opening all the valves.
Replacement of the stuffing box can be done neatly with your own hands. To do this, shut off the water supply from the riser, dismantle the locking mechanism, replace the gaskets and lubricate the moving parts.
The water tap differs in simplicityoperation and does not require special maintenance. Each model should be used for its intended purpose. Simple repair of the valve can be done by yourself, if you act carefully and correctly.