What is pyelonephritis?
Pyelonephritis is an inflammation of the renal pelvis,quite often extending to the calyx and parenchyma of the kidney. The etiology of pyelonephritis is mainly bacterial in nature. Pyelonephritis refers to infectious diseases that do not have a specific pathogen. It can be caused by microbes that constantly inhabit the human body, or bacteria that enter the body from the outside, from the environment.
Causes of pyelonephritis
- Penetration of pathogenic microflora into the kidney.
- Violation of the normal outflow of urine, caused by various causes.
- Disorder of lymph and blood circulation in the body.
Pathogens of pyelonephritis
The most common inflammatory process in the kidneysprovoke: Escherichia coli, Pseudomonas aeruginosa, colibacillus, Proteus and various cocci - Enterococcus, Staphylococcus, Streptococcus. With prolonged course of pyelonephritis, especially in cases of powerful antibiotic therapy, a fungal infection caused by various candidias can also attach to them.
Classification of pyelonephritis
All cases of pyelonephritis in medicine are classified according to several basic principles.
Depending on the number of kidneys affected by the disease process, pyelonephritis
By the nature of the course of the disease,
- Acute pyelonephritis
- Chronic pyelonephritis
- Recurrent pyelonephritis.
Because of the occurrence of pyelonephritis is divided into
- Primary, in which there are no other kidney diseases and there are no violations of urodynamics
- Secondary, occurring against a background of other diseases of the kidney or urinary system
On the path of infection into the human body are distinguished:
- Descending, the most common,
- Ascending, occurring much less often, pyelonephritis.
Now that we have briefly told you what ispyelonephritis and described the causes that cause it, I would like to talk more about the main symptoms of this serious disease, as well as characterize the groups of people who have pyelonephritis most often.
Main risk groups
- Most often pyelonephritis is affected by small children under the age of seven. In this age group, pyelonephritis is in second place after diseases of the respiratory system.
- Young women. In this category, a surge of diseases is associated with the onset of sexual activity, pregnancy and childbirth.
- Older men. At them a pyelonephritis more often happens secondary, developing on a background of a chronic prostatitis or an adenoma of a prostate.
Symptoms of pyelonephritis
The most striking clinical picture is acute pyelonephritis, which occurs in people of both sexes at any age.
- There is acute pyelonephritis, as a rule,suddenly. The disease begins with a sudden sudden temperature to forty degrees, then there is a headache, a feeling of weakness and profuse sweating. Against the background of high fever, nausea and even vomiting are possible. There is a dull, drawing pain in the lower back, more intense from the affected kidney. Urination in uncomplicated pyelonephritis is usually not disrupted.
- The onset of the disease is characterized by predominancegeneral symptoms characteristic of most infectious processes, specific manifestations are completely absent or very poorly expressed in this period. In the first days, the patient has a severe headache and aches in the whole body, then general intoxication of the body increases, causing vomiting, joint and muscle pain. Attacks of extremely severe chills are followed by fever, then intense sweating begins, and the temperature drops sharply, sometimes even to normal levels. Such seizures are repeated at regular intervals. In between, the patient feels a breakdown, he is sluggish and adynamic.
- As the disease progresses to the above-described generalsymptoms are added specific - pain in the lower back, especially strong from the affected side and irrigating in the upper abdomen, groin and thigh. In the future, pain is localized in the area of the diseased kidney. This pain intensifies at night, especially when the patient lies on his back, as well as with involuntary tension of the abdominal muscles during coughing or sneezing.
Thus, the preliminary diagnosis of "pyelonephritis" is based on its main clinical manifestations - severe chills, sweating, fever and pain in the lumbar region.
What is chronic pyelonephritis?
Most often, chronic pyelonephritis isa direct consequence of an incomplete acute pyelonephritis, when medically managed to remove the primary acute inflammation, but still there were pathogenic microorganisms in the kidney and the normal outflow of urine from the kidney is still broken. Chronic pyelonephritis can constantly remind of itself with aching blunt low back pain, which intensifies in cold wet weather, a feeling of weakness, increased fatigue, decreased appetite and subfebrile temperature.
Treatment of pyelonephritis usually begins withrestoration of normal outflow of urine, in cases when it is impaired, and the appointment of various antibacterial drugs to the patient. More information about the treatment of pyelonephritis you can learn from our article How to treat pyelonephritis.