When and for what was the Nobel Prize awarded to Gorbachev?
On October 15, 1990, the first and onlyPresident of the USSR Mikhail Gorbachev was awarded the Nobel Peace Prize. The awarding of the award to the "man who ruined the Soviet Union" responded with mixed assessments and criticism. Why did Gorbachev win the Nobel Prize? In order to understand this issue in detail, it is necessary to highlight the activities of the Soviet and Russian politicians, the criteria for awarding, an ambiguous reaction in society. In what year did Gorbachev receive the Nobel Prize and for what? We learn in the article.
Latest pages of the biography of the Soviet Union
In 1987 Mikhail Gorbachev, being on toppower, gave the start to "restructuring." The large-scale changes in the ideology, the stable economic and political life of the Soviet Union that existed before, were carried out with the goal of democratizing the socio-political and economic system that had developed in the USSR.
At the first stage of large-scale reforms,anti-alcohol campaign, accelerating the pace of the national economy, automation and computerization, combating corruption (demonstrative) and unearned income (real). It was planned to provide each family with a separate apartment, to improve the economic situation in the country. At the 27th Party Congress, the policy was no longer aimed at "building communism," but on "improving socialism." Radical measures have not yet been applied, so everything in the USSR remained the same. Unless the old cadres of the Brezhnev nomenklatura were replaced by new managers, who in time will become the head of fateful events.
Large-scale reforms in the USSR
The Nobel Prize of Gorbachev has not yet loomed onThe horizon, when the second stage of perestroika began. The team of the head of state came to the conclusion that it is impossible to change the current situation by administrative measures alone. Then an attempt was made to reform in the spirit of socialism, emphasizing its democratic character. The stage was characterized by a large-scale complex of reforms in all spheres of life in the USSR.
- The glasnost policy lifted the ban on discussing topics that had previously been hushed up.
- Legalized private enterprise (there was a cooperative movement), enterprises began to be established, joint with foreign companies.
- A new doctrine in foreign policy has improved relations with the West.
Against the background of faith in a bright future (especially withthe youth, the intelligentsia and the generation, tired of two decades of stagnation) gradually began to increase and instability: the state's economy worsened, separatist sentiments appeared on the national borders, and ethnic clashes broke out.
When there was a sharp destabilization in the Soviet Union?
Why did they give the Nobel Prize to Gorbachev? This became clear to the Soviet society during the third stage of perestroika, because it was then that the political leader received an outstanding award. At that time, there was a sharp destabilization in the USSR, so criticism and an ambiguous reaction were expected. The changes came out of the control of the official ruling elite, economic problems turned into a real crisis, the standard of living of the population fell dramatically, the chronic commodity deficit peaked, the positive reaction of society to perestroika gave way to disappointment and anti-communist sentiments, and the rate of emigration increased. In the socio-economic system of the Soviet Union, features of Western capitalism appeared: private property, stock and currency markets, and Western-style business. In the international arena the USSR loses its positions and ceases to be a superpower.
Characteristic of the period of restructuring
Post-restructuring is characterized by a situation wherea single state continued to exist "on paper", but in fact Soviet history came to its end, the disintegration of the USSR has become only a matter of time. At that time, the Nobel Prize to Gorbachev caused sincere misunderstanding among the majority of citizens: the peace prize for crimes against their own people?
Whatever it was, the complete dismantlingThe communist system occurred together with the collapse of the Soviet economy. In early December 1991 in Belovezhskaya Pushcha the political leaders of the three Union republics proclaimed that the USSR no longer exists. The central government, led by Mikhail Gorbachev, could no longer oppose these loud statements. The president resigns, and on December 26 of the same year the Soviet Union ceases to exist definitively. Mikhail Gorbachev had a serious impact on the situation in the country, but not always it was only negative.
The consequences of Mikhail Gorbachev's reign
With the name of Mikhail Gorbachev, the mostcontradictory period of the history of Russia. He laid the foundation for democracy in the country, which was the reason for the formation of political pluralism - the diversity of opinions, directions, views. With the Gorbachev period, the beginning of the activity of individual entrepreneurs, the transition to a market economy, serious changes in the state apparatus, the formation of oppositional movements are connected. The situation of citizens has deteriorated significantly, there was a split in the sphere of intellectuals and artists: talented scientists either left abroad, or went into business.
But more significant in the matter of obtaining MikhailGorbachev won the Nobel Prize for his actions and their results related to foreign policy. First, he saved the whole world from the threat of nuclear war. True, this was done by surrendering the foreign policy positions of the USSR in favor of the United States, so that in fact the Soviet Union lost the Cold War. In the West, this victory is officially celebrated.
Secondly, his policy caused anotherredistribution of the world and local conflicts. It was through the fault of Mikhail Gorbachev that numerous bloody conflicts took place in Georgia, Kazakhstan, Latvia and Lithuania, Uzbekistan, Kyrgyzstan and Azerbaijan. Most of these acts were not just a reaction to the liberation movements in the republics and peaceful protests, but a planned reprisal. In favor of this statement speaks at least the fact that a few days before the "black" January, the families of Russian officers were exported from Azerbaijan, the problem of "refugees" was artificially created, and the official media claimed that the military would not enter the republic and the state of emergency was announced will not be.
But on the night of January 20, 1990 (and this is the yearawarding the Nobel Prize to Gorbachev), a contingent of forty thousand troops and tanks stopped the border, committing unprecedented atrocities and massacres against the civilian population. The army used forbidden cartridges, firing mortars and tanks on live people. Information communication was blocked both inside the country and with the outside world. In the course of these actions, 134 civilians were killed, 700 injured, 400 people were missing. The operation of the "Strike" was led by the Minister of the Interior and the Army General.
Similar events took place in Tbilisi in 1989, Alma-Ata in 1986, Dushanbe in 1990 (again, the year of the Nobel Prize to Gorbachev), Riga and Vilnius in 1991.
For what was awarded Mikhail GorbachevNobel Peace Prize? Of course, he contributed to the ingraining of Germany, but at the same time it was his policy that disorganized the Soviet Union. The Soviet leader signed an agreement with the US to reduce the number of medium-range missiles, destroyed the Iron Curtain, withdrew troops from Afghanistan, withdrew the country from the Warsaw Pact. In fact, he destroyed the bipolar world. This happened to please the West, but it had a very negative effect on the USSR itself, the successor country and the Union republics, which became independent.
Why did Gorbachev win the Nobel Peace Prize?
Officially, the Nobel Prize was awardedSoviet leader for helping to establish peace throughout the world. The statement of the Nobel Committee of October 15, 1990 was made in recognition of Gorbachev's leading role in the peace process. At the award ceremony, Gorbachev himself, a Nobel laureate, and Foreign Minister A. Kovalev were present. His Nobel lecture was read only on June 5, 1991. This does not contradict the rules of the Nobel Committee, since the laureate must deliver such a lecture within six months after the award ceremony.
What is the unprecedented decision of the Nobel Committee?
Nobel Prize of Mikhail Sergeevich Gorbachevbecame an unprecedented event. Until this moment, the award was not given to the person at the head of the state. The only exception was Egyptian President A. Sadat and Israeli Prime Minister M. Begin. They were awarded the award for a specific achievement, namely the signing of a peace treaty between Egypt and Israel. Similarly, the Nobel Peace Prize received US Secretary of State G. Kissinger and Vietnamese Foreign Minister Le Dykh Tho for a truce between Hanoi and Saigon.
The difference in opinions about Gorbachev in Russia and in the West
Perception of the first and only presidentThe USSR in Russia and in the West is radically different. In Western countries, he is regarded as a national hero, a liberator, and in the eyes of Russians and residents of former union republics, Mikhail Gorbachev is a man who brought chaos and long years of decline, rather than long-awaited freedom and progressive capitalism. For the Western world, the threat from the Soviet Union disappeared just as Gorbachev came to power, while in Russia he was remembered by a leader who brought only starvation, devastation, the liquidation of a vast state and total chaos. It is not surprising that Gorbachev's Nobel Prize was perceived negatively by Soviet people.
What did Mikhail Gorbachev say in his Nobel speech?
It is significant that Gorbachev's Nobel Lecturewas pronounced when, before the actual collapse of the Soviet Union, there were about six months left. After a lengthy discussion of the world, he moved on to the domestic political situation in the USSR. Before Gorbachev came to power, according to him, the society was dying out, but after its reforms, albeit unsuccessful in some respects, positive dynamics appeared. He admitted that serious difficulties had recently begun to grow in the USSR, but he promised that the reforms would continue, and that a way out of the crisis should be expected soon. The exit was really close. The country collapsed in six months, and at the time of the speech from the Soviet Union, Georgia had almost completely separated.
The reaction to awarding the M. Gorbachev Prize
The Nobel Prize for Gorbachev in Soviet Societycaused a highly ambiguous reaction. People who witnessed the bloody events that were the result of peaceful protest did not compare Mikhail Gorbachev, the culprit of all these horrors, and hundreds of murdered, crippled citizens. Immediately remembered the failed reforms and problems within the society.
How did the political leaders of the Western world evaluate the award?
Gorbachev's nomination was proposedNobel Committee of the German leadership for the position taken by him on the issue of the reunification of Germany. Western leaders view the award as a reward for the destruction of the communist regime, significant economic and political changes in Eastern Europe and the Soviet Union. Gorbachev destroyed the bipolar world, which, of course, benefited the US, casting off the possibility of a large-scale armed conflict between the countries. Now the United States is the leader in the political arena.
What did the leaders of the Eastern European states say?
The political leaders of Eastern Europe weremore cautious in assessments. The president of the Czechoslovakia (Czechoslovakia) said that if this award would contribute to the establishment of a peaceful transition of the Soviet Union to a society of equal peoples, the Czechoslovak government cordially greeted it. In the Republic of Lithuania, it was recognized that the collapse of communism was connected with the name of Gorbachev. The same was said by representatives of many other Eastern European states, expressing hope for a peaceful resolution of the contradictions that reached a climax in Soviet society.
How did the President of the USSR manage the funds received?
In addition to the award, Mikhail Gorbachev received another 10millions of Swedish kronor. All this money he transferred to the creation of a children's hematology center in St. Petersburg. This was the project of his wife - Raisa Gorbacheva.