White mustard - siderat. White mustard as a fertilizer
Increasingly, modern gardeners and gardeners are faced with the problem of soil depletion. Scientists propose that various mineral and organic fertilizers be applied to restore and improve the productivity of the fertile layer.
However, the most affordable and environmentally friendly method is growing greenside plants on the site, which are also called green manure. Such crops that can enrich the soil with nitrogen and other organic substances include various types of clover and lupine, peas and beans, sweet clover and rapeseed, phacelia and, of course, white mustard. This article will tell you about the features and characteristics of this plant, methods of soil preparation and planting, as well as the use of white mustard.
A bit of history
The ancient Greeks and Romans knew well and often used mustard for various purposes. We have a story that in 33 BC. erThe military leader of the Persians, Darius, sent a sack filled with sesame seeds to his opponent Alexander the Macedonian as a challenge to battle. In response, the Macedonian sent to the Persian camp a small-sized bag containing white mustard seeds. Such a message meant that, although the Greek army is smaller in the number of soldiers, but they are more "hot" and active in battles. The famous Greek healer Hippocrates used various parts of the mustard plant to treat many diseases. The spread of white mustard in Europe was promoted by military operations and campaigns of the Romans, who used it both for culinary and medicinal purposes.
White mustard, or, as it is also called, English (Sinapis alba), is an annual Shrovetide herb belonging to the genus Sinapis (Mustard) of the Cruciferous (Cabbage) family. The root system of this siderat is deep, pivotal. The main root can "go away" to a depth of three meters. The lateral roots are located in the upper layers of the soil and grow horizontally, departing 60-70 cm from the ground.
The above-ground portion of white mustard grows to 80 cm.The plant blooms, depending on weather conditions, in June-July, with yellow or whitish-yellow flowers, which are collected in a raceme-shaped inflorescence. In each of these inflorescences can be from 25 to 100 insect-germinated flowers with a spicy-honey smell. By the end of summer, a fruit is formed, which is a multi-chamber pod with a xiphoid elongated spout and covered with stiff short hairs. Inside the pod, as a rule, 5 to 6 spherical seeds are formed, which can be colored in various shades of yellow.
White mustard is a rather cold-resistant and moisture-loving culture, therefore in the northern regions it blooms and forms fruits much faster.
Both the young leaves and the white mustard flowers are rich in various vitamins, flavonoids and trace elements. Essential and fatty oils, saponins, and amino acids such as arachidic, linolenic, palmitic, oleic, linoleic and others are present in the seeds of the plant. In addition, they contain such natural mineral compounds as thioglycoside sinalbin, glycoside sinigrin, and the enzyme myrosin.The oils contained in mustard give it a burning taste, which is responsible for the glycoside sinigrin, and a specific smell.
Where is it used?
Besides the fact that white mustard is a siderat, it is also used as a plant honey plant, a source of raw materials for the manufacture of various medicines, oilseed and spicy-flavoring culture.
For food, the leaves of the plant are used, which are added fresh to salads, and, in boiled or stewed food, as a side dish to fish and meat dishes. Oil is obtained from white mustard seeds, and the remaining oil cake is used to produce mustard powder, from which various sauces and seasonings are made later.
Whole seeds of this plant are used for various types of conservation, as well as for cooking cabbage and meat dishes, making minced meat. Ground mustard seeds are used in the confectionery, bakery, textile, soap and pharmaceutical industries.
But more than all the listed advantages of mustard, we are interested in what it is as good as green manure. Let's figure it out.
The advantages of mustard as a siderata
White mustard as a fertilizer is liked by most gardeners and gardeners by the fact that it grows very quickly, despite adverse weather conditions,increases the volume of green mass. The seeds of this plant can rise at a temperature of +1 ... + 2aboutC, and quite calmly transfer the temperature to -4 ...- 5aboutC. All this allows sowing mustard throughout the garden season: from April to the end of September.
As already mentioned, white mustard rather quickly increases the green mass, which is very rich in minerals and trace elements. It contains nitrogen, potassium and phosphorus. However, it should be remembered that only those plants that have buds or started to bloom will be able to enrich the soil with nitrogen. With proper soil preparation, mustard can build up to 400 kg of green mass per hundred, which roughly corresponds to the introduction of 300 kg of manure.
A well-developed and deep mustard root system restores air permeability, porosity and soil structure, thereby improving water permeability and moisture holding capacity. In addition, the roots of white mustard secrete special substances - phytohormones, which suppress the vital activity of various pathogens and nematodes, as a result of which the soil is disinfected.
The dug up green mass and the remnants of the roots are food for various organisms that live in the soil,producing biohumus and releasing carbon dioxide in the process of vital activity, which is necessary for plant nutrition.
White mustard is a siderat which perfectly enriches and disinfects the soil. After it, most of the vegetable and grain crops grow well, except for the representatives of the Cabbage family.
How to prepare the ground for planting?
If the planting of white mustard for subsequent industrial processing is carried out only on cultivated soils in which organic fertilizers are applied, then gardeners can plant this plant on difficult soils. Mustard can also grow on clayey, acidic, humus-poor lands. In the process of its growth, this plant enriches the soil with phosphorus, sulfur and nitrogen. For normal growth and development of mustard, sufficient water is most important, regardless of the ambient temperature. This siderat does not tolerate drought and requires abundant watering.
How and when to sow?
White mustard is sown early enough as soon as the soil temperature reaches +8 ... + 10aboutC. Planting at such an early date offers several advantages:
- Wet topsoil and low air temperature andSoils contribute to the development of powerful roots and leaves that can compete for a place in the sun with weeds.
- With such early planting, cruciferous fleas cause less damage to the mustard.
- This culture prefers a long day, because of this late sowing is undesirable. In this case, white mustard (reviews of gardeners and farmers in this case are unanimous), passes all stages of development too quickly, which adversely affects the plant.
If you plan to use mustard as a green fertilizer, then for each weave of land you need to prepare about 100-150 g of seeds. Many gardeners practice sowing with legumes. Planted seeds to a depth of about 2 cm, leaving between rows of 15-20 cm.