YaMZ-236 engine: characteristics, device, features and reviews
The YaMZ-236 engine is considered to be a legendary diesel engine, which is produced at Avtodizel OJSC (the former Yaroslavl Engine Plant). This V-shaped six-cylinder unit gained popularity during the Soviet era, and after its collapse continued to be actively used in the CIS countries. Today the YMZ-236 is installed on ZIL, KrAZ, MAZ, Ural trucks; tractor K-700 and harvesters. The closest neighbors of this engine are the eight-cylinder YaMZ-238 and the twelve-cylinder YaMZ-240.
How the YMZ-236 model was created and production today
Prior to the development of this engine, the YAZ models were exploited, which were obsolete by the fifties. Therefore, in the 50s of the last century, the Yaroslavl Plant was commissioned to create a more powerful and economical engine by state order. In addition, I needed a unit that could be installed on very different equipment.
The honored scientist and outstanding designer of the USSR GD Chernyshev, who also developed other diesel engines in those years, was engaged in the development of the YaMZ-236 engine.
So was born the new ICE, which later became a celebrity. It was distinguished by high power, reliability and easy repairs, simple maintenance and cheap spare parts. With proper operation, this mechanism will last for many years.
The YMZ-236 is being manufactured today, it is being regularly updated and at the same time it already has a successor — an improved modification, the YMZ-530.
Diesel engines YMZ-236 are still relevant, their sales are not falling, despite the appearance of more modern models.
Characteristics and device model
Diesel engine YMZ-236 has high technical characteristics. It has 8 cylinders parallel to each other, with a 90 degree tilt. The fuel is directly injected into the combustion chamber. Working pressure - 16.5 atmospheres. The basic piston diameter is 13 centimeters, the repair version is 14 cm. The high-pressure fuel pump YaMZ-236 is mechanical. Also here are installed injectors, due to which the fuel is injected into the cylinders.On each head of the block 6 valves - three intake and three exhaust.
The engine is cooled by a water pump through the forced circulation of fluid. The drive is carried out by means of the belt rotating a pulley of a pump from a crankshaft pulley.
The engine capacity of the YMZ-236 is 11 liters, power reaches 420 hp The latest models are boosted to 500 horsepower, and earlier ones produce from 150 hp. Until recently, fuel consumption per 100 km was about 40 liters, but the rapidly growing diesel fuel prices prompted manufacturers to upgrade the engine, and now this parameter is 25 liters per 100 km.
In the production of the power unit until 2010, cast iron was used, after 2010 they began to be made of aluminum. Thereby, engine repair has become much simpler, while it has not lost the strength of previous analogues.
The optimal design of the YaMZ-236 ensures easy repair and maintenance of the mechanism.
To adjust the YaMZ-236 requires a special tool, make it manually. The adjustment itself consists of many stages. Mainly need adjustment:
- YAMZ-236 clutch, which requires a specialized stand for adjustment;
- supply of diesel fuel through the injection pump YaMZ-236;
- valves for which you need a special probe.
Adjustment is recommended only in the service station using specially designed for this equipment, which, moreover, is unlikely to be found in an ordinary garage.
Maintenance of the diesel engine YaMZ-236
Maintenance of this mechanism is quite simple, as already mentioned above. To do this, you just need to understand its design. Most often required:
- change the oil (for this you need a lubricant for a diesel engine);
- replace filter elements (filters require replacement every 15 thousand kilometers);
- purge the nozzles (i.e. adjust the injection);
- replace valve cover gaskets;
- tighten or replace drive belts.
These are the main points of engine maintenance. The remaining problems require repair. This will require special equipment, so all work is usually done only in the service station.
Features in the mechanism
In order for the mechanism to work smoothly and for a long time, it is necessary to know and observe certain features.
First of all, it is necessary to carefully carry out all the maintenance work provided for by the manufacturer’s instructions.
When running in a new engine, all its friction surfaces are added, therefore it is important to follow the rules of running in - they are usually indicated in the appropriate section of the manual.
It is also important to lubricate the engine according to the appropriate table. All approved lubricants are listed.
The coolant in the engine running should have a temperature of 75 to 98 degrees. A cold engine should not work under load. Starting a cold engine, you can not dramatically increase the speed, because the thick oil does not have time to reach the crankshaft bearings, and they fail.
The oil level should not fall below 300 kPa, otherwise rubbing surfaces can quickly wear out.
Fastening cylinder heads, tightened with nuts, you need to tighten with a strict periodicity, consistency and a given torque. If this is not observed, the tightness of the seal will be broken and the gaskets will burn out.
The future of the engine YMZ-236
By 2020, the plant may cease to produce this engine model, since its improved modification, YaMZ-660, is already being developed.Its power will be more than 100 horsepower, and the engine capacity - 12.5 liters. The location of the cylinders and valves will remain classic, but the fuel pump of the new model, compared to the fuel pump YaMZ-236, will be electronic and will be produced according to the Euro-5 standard, thanks to which new engines will be able to sell freely on the world market.
According to users, the YMZ-236 is a great engine, but already outdated. They have many advantages, but there are also disadvantages. For example, a cylinder head with overheating behaves unpredictably. Moreover, it is useless to repair it - you just need to change it. The operating experience of the YMZ-236 shows that it is the most trouble-free engine today. The most unreliable here is the regulator on the pump, with the purchase it should be properly checked.
This engine is very reliable, and the injection pump usually serve faithfully. The main thing is to check and adjust in time, then there will be no particular problems - all of them will be revealed in the early stages and eliminated in time. For example, the pump is recommended to check at least 1 time per year.